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The Art of Public SPeaking

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Rebekah Mohnkern

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of The Art of Public SPeaking

CHapter 14:
Using Visual Aids

Rebekah Mohnkern
1.

Kinds of Visual Aids
Objects and Models
Photographs and Drawings
Graphs
Charts
Video
The Speaker
PowerPoint
2. Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids
Prepare Visual Aids Well In Advance
Keep Visual Aids Simple
Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough
Use Limited Amount of Text
Use Fonts Effectively
Use Color Effectively
Use Images Strategically
3. Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids
Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them
Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among The Audience
Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them
Explain Visual Aids Clearly And Concisely
Talk To You Audience, Not To Your Visual Aid
Practice With Your Visual Aids
Check The Room And Equipment
The Speaker
i. Sometimes you can use your own body as a visual aid
ii. Doing some kind of demonstration helps keep the audience involved
iii. It can also reduce the speaker’s nervousness
iv. It does require special practice to coordinate your actions with your words and to control the timing of your speech
In this chapter, I will be covering the three main sections, which include:
1. Kinds of Visual Aids
2. Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids
3. Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids

Photographs and Drawings
i. Picture or drawing must be large enough for audience to see
ii.Passing around a photograph or drawing can be done if it is small but it distracts audience from what the speaker is saying
iii. Most effective way to show drawings and photographs is through a PowerPoint
Charts
i. Particularly useful for summarizing large blocks of information.
ii. Can be used when there are too many categories to put into a pie chart
iii. Lists on charts should rarely exceed seven or eight items

Objects and Models
i. Excellent way to clarify ideas and give dramatic impact
ii. Some objects may be too large, too small or unavailable to use as visual aids. In which case, a model can be made of that object in mind
Video
i. Make sure clip is not too long
ii. Cue video to start exactly where you want it to
iii. If necessary, edit video to precise length needed so it blends smoothly into speech
iv. Beware of low-resolution video that may look fine on computer but is blurry and distorted when projected
Graphs
i. Audiences often have trouble understand complex series of numbers
ii. Speaker can ease audiences difficulty by using graphs to show statistical trends and patterns
iii. Most common type is the line graph. It uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space

PowerPoint
i. Allows you to integrate a variety of visual aids
ii. Different pluses and minuses of using PowerPoint
iii. When planning to use PowerPoint, make sure you have a clear idea of exactly how to use it
Prepare Visual Aids Well In Advance
i. Allows time and resources to devise creative, attractive aids
ii. You can use them while practicing your speech
iii. Effective only when integrated smoothly with rest of speech

Keep Visual Aids Simple
i. Simple, clear and to the point
ii. When using PowerPoint, limit slides to manageable amount of info and beware of the tendency to go overboard

Use Color Effectively
i. When used correctly, color can dramatically increase impact of Visual aid
ii. Make sure there is enough contrast between background and text color so it can be seen clearly
iii. Maintain limited number of different colors and use consistently throughout PowerPoint
iv. Maintaining consistency will unify slides

Use Fonts Effectively
i. Avoid decorative fonts
ii. Choose clear and easy-to-read fonts
iii. Avoid using ALL CAPS
iv. Do not use more than two fonts per slide
v. Use the same fonts throughout all slides in PowerPoint

Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough
i. Keep in mind size of room in which you will be speaking
ii. Make sure aid is large enough to be seen
iii. Avoid using all caps to enhance visibility
iv. Research has shown that long strings of words in ALL CAPS is harder to read than normal text

Use Limited Amount of Text
i. Briefer is better
ii. Avoid using more than half-dozen lines of type
iii. Limit to fewer lines when using images in slides

Use Images Strategically
i. You should never add images of any sort to a PowerPoint unless they are truly needed
ii. Research shows that too many images distracts listeners and reduces comprehension of speaker’s point
iii. Make sure images are large enough to be seen
iv. Choose clear images that will project well without blurring
v. Keep graphs and charts clear
vi. Include title above chart and graphs so audience knows what they are viewing

Pie Graph - highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution. Should ideally have from 2-5 segments and never more than 8

Bar Graph - uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items. Easy to understand
Pluses and Minuses of PowerPoint
i. It can be a great aid to communication when used properly
ii. A speaker can use little or no eye contact because they are too tied to the PowerPoint
iii. Some speakers use PowerPoint to illustrate every point of talk, which ends up in reading speech to audience

Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them
i. Observe room to decide exactly where you will display visual aids
ii. If displaying an object, do so from a place where it can be seen easily by everyone
iii. Stand to one side of visual aid to avoid blocking the audience’s view

Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience
i. At least three people will lose focus on the speaker when a visual aid is passed around
ii. Preparing handouts for every member in the audience can distract audience from what the speaker is saying
iii. If you need to provide a copies for audience to take home, hand them out when you finish speaking
Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them
i. If using an object or model, keep it out of sight until you are ready to discuss it
ii. This allows applies to PowerPoint slides, as well
Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely
i. Visual aids need to be translated and related to the audience
ii. A visual aid is only as useful as the explanation that goes with it
Practice With Your Visual Aids
i. Rehearse how you will show your visual aids and the time you will use in doing so
ii. Allow extra time for rehearsal


Talk To Your Audience, Not To Your Visual Aid
i. It is easy to break eye contact with audience when using a visual aid
ii. It is easy to break eye contact with audience when using a visual aid


Check the Room and Equipment
i. Check the setup of equipment in the room that you will be speaking
ii. If possible, check the room the day prior to speaking
iii. Before you speak, arrange to have a technician present to take care of any problems, if available
iv. If it is not possible to check the room the day before, arrive an hour early to check everything and to familiarize yourself with setup
v. If using PowerPoint, always bring a backup of your slides on a flash drive



Conclusion
Full transcript