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TOEFL TIPS

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Marco Nava

on 16 March 2014

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Transcript of TOEFL TIPS

TOEFL TIPS
ADVERB CLAUSES
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb. In other words, it contains a subject (explicit or implied) and a predicate, and it modifies a verb.
ADVERB CLAUSE MARKERS
Whereby- I use a method
whereby
I make experiments.
Time- I’ll call you
when
I get home.
Concessions- I love jazz
whereas
my brother prefers rock.
Reason-
Since
it’s snowing, schools are closed.
Results- He made
such
an effort that he passed the test.
Adjective Clause
An adjective clause is used to describe a noun. There are two kinds of adjective clauses:

Non- Defining Clauses- Gives extra information
Defining Clauses- Gives essential information
Adjective Clause Markers
Who/ Whom- The boy
who

broke
his arm is my cousin
Which/ That- The pencil
which
is red is mine.
Whose- I like houses
whose
gardens are colorful.
Where- Nobody knows
where
he lives.
When- I remember the day
when
we fought.

AUXILIARY VERBS
An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears—for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Principal main verbs
PRESENT:
Will
Can
May
Must
Have/Has
Do/ Does
Is/ Am/ Are
Shall
NOUN CLAUSES
A noun clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb; however, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.

MISAEL MARTINEZ
ERWIN OJEDA
MARCO NAVA
For example:

What you think does not matter.
NOUN CLAUSE MARKERS
WHAT- I don’t know
what
you want
WHO-
Who
calls me is a private matter.
WHY-
Why
you disagree is irrelevant.
WHERE- I wonder
where
you live.
WHEN- I want to know
when
he arrives.


For example:

I saw Joe when I went to the store
PAST:
Would
Could
Might
Had
Was/ Were
Should
Did
VERB TENSES
In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time.
Principal Verb Tenses
Examples
Simple present- She works hard
Present continuous- I am running
Simple past- I studied a lot.
Past continuous- I was singing

Principal Verb Tenses
Examples
Future going to- I am going to hit you
Future will- I won´t help you
Present perfect- I have changed myself
Past perfect- I had swam.

The subject and verb must agree in number: both must be singular, or both must be plural. Problems occur in the present tense because one must add an -s or -es at the end of the verb when the subjects or the entity performing the action is a singular third person: he, she, it.
Subject-verb agreement

PRINCIPAL STATEMENTS
When we focus on the type of information expressed by an adjective
When we emphasize a noun and its relative clause
When we say that something exists or want to mention the presence of something
A prepositional phrase doesn’t affect the verb

PRINCIPAL STATEMENTS
Expressions that do not affect the verb
Subjects joined by AND or BOTH… AND take plural verb
When several, many, both, and few are used as pronouns, they take a plural verb
When these expressions are used, the verb agrees with the closest noun




PRINCIPAL STATEMENTS
The expression “a number of” is plural. The expression “the number of” is singular
When a word indicates a language, it’s singular. When it refers to people, it’s plural
When clauses, infinitives or gerunds are used as subjects, they usually take a singular verb

MODALS
A modal verb is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation.
TYPES OF MODALS
INFINITIVES
First and foremost, an infinitive is the form of the verb, but it is not a verb.

Second, an infinitive can be a noun, an adjective or an adverb.

And finally, it is always "to" plus a verb.
Infinitves
INFINITIVES
INFINITIVES
INFINITIVES
GERUNDS
GERUNDS
The gerund is a non-finite verb form that can function as a noun.
Gerunds
GERUNDS
Adjectives formed from verbs

Referents
Parallel Structures
Connecting Ideas
Nouns
INDEFINITE
ARTICLES
DEFINITE ARTICLES
VERB INVERSION
COMPARISONS
PREPOSITIONAL
PHRASES
"The" is the definite article.
It is used before singular or
plural nouns that are specific
or particular.
A/an are the indefinite articles.
We use a/an before general, non-specific
nouns or to indicate membership in a group.
A/an can only be used with countable,
singular nouns.
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