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Transcript of TOEFL TIPS
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb. In other words, it contains a subject (explicit or implied) and a predicate, and it modifies a verb.
ADVERB CLAUSE MARKERS
Whereby- I use a method
I make experiments.
Time- I’ll call you
I get home.
Concessions- I love jazz
my brother prefers rock.
it’s snowing, schools are closed.
Results- He made
an effort that he passed the test.
An adjective clause is used to describe a noun. There are two kinds of adjective clauses:
Non- Defining Clauses- Gives extra information
Defining Clauses- Gives essential information
Adjective Clause Markers
Who/ Whom- The boy
his arm is my cousin
Which/ That- The pencil
is red is mine.
Whose- I like houses
gardens are colorful.
Where- Nobody knows
When- I remember the day
An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears—for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.
Principal main verbs
Is/ Am/ Are
A noun clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb; however, it cannot stand alone as a sentence.
What you think does not matter.
NOUN CLAUSE MARKERS
WHAT- I don’t know
calls me is a private matter.
you disagree is irrelevant.
WHERE- I wonder
WHEN- I want to know
I saw Joe when I went to the store
In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time.
Principal Verb Tenses
Simple present- She works hard
Present continuous- I am running
Simple past- I studied a lot.
Past continuous- I was singing
Principal Verb Tenses
Future going to- I am going to hit you
Future will- I won´t help you
Present perfect- I have changed myself
Past perfect- I had swam.
The subject and verb must agree in number: both must be singular, or both must be plural. Problems occur in the present tense because one must add an -s or -es at the end of the verb when the subjects or the entity performing the action is a singular third person: he, she, it.
When we focus on the type of information expressed by an adjective
When we emphasize a noun and its relative clause
When we say that something exists or want to mention the presence of something
A prepositional phrase doesn’t affect the verb
Expressions that do not affect the verb
Subjects joined by AND or BOTH… AND take plural verb
When several, many, both, and few are used as pronouns, they take a plural verb
When these expressions are used, the verb agrees with the closest noun
The expression “a number of” is plural. The expression “the number of” is singular
When a word indicates a language, it’s singular. When it refers to people, it’s plural
When clauses, infinitives or gerunds are used as subjects, they usually take a singular verb
A modal verb is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation.
TYPES OF MODALS
First and foremost, an infinitive is the form of the verb, but it is not a verb.
Second, an infinitive can be a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
And finally, it is always "to" plus a verb.
The gerund is a non-finite verb form that can function as a noun.
Adjectives formed from verbs
"The" is the definite article.
It is used before singular or
plural nouns that are specific
A/an are the indefinite articles.
We use a/an before general, non-specific
nouns or to indicate membership in a group.
A/an can only be used with countable,