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The Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, & the Kansas-Nebraska Act

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Christopher Beckvold

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of The Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, & the Kansas-Nebraska Act

The Missouri Compromise
How was it viewed?
Did people want slavery or did they want to get rid of it?
What exactly did the Missouri Compromise do?
In 1819, the admission of Alabama as a slave state made the number of slave states and free states even.
That same year, Missouri applied for statehood.
To keep the peace, in 1820, Congress created a two-part Compromise that admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
It was called the Missouri Compromise, or the Compromise of 1820.
The government wanted to maintain this equality of slave & free states so Congress created a bill.
The law prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory (the Southern boundary of Missouri).
Drew an imaginary line across it, establishing a boundary between the slave and free states
Slavery
All about
Slavery was a controversial issue and a great moral problem.
In the early days of the Republic, the Founding Fathers hoped and believed that slavery might die out.

Missouri’s 1819 request for admission to the Union as a slave state caused a heated argument. It threatened to upset the delicate balance between 11 slave states and 11 free states.
The Compromise and the War
Considered by those in the North to be the final answer to slavery
Slavery was the primary issue that led to the Civil War
Disputes between the North and South included: competition for power in Congress and for control over future territories, and the main topic: slavery
If there was not slavery there would not have been a war
The Civil War broke out in 1861
Historians often say The Missouri Compromise postponed the War
Up until the Missouri Compromise, there had been an effort to keep the states even between Slave States and Free States. Both sides wanted to continue doing so, which was why the Missouri Compromise was created.
Prohibited slavery in the Western Territories above the 36°30′ northern parallel.
Repeal
Cotton
Slavery was going to die out, until Eli Whitney came along.
He also saw that a slave had to work the whole day to pick the seeds out of a pound of cotton in order to make it useable.
He invented the cotton gin, which made picking seeds out of cotton a lot easier and made plantation owner's profits soar.
The South became dependent on cotton and enslaved Africans for labor.
Growth
During this time period, the nation reached 10 million people.
A state was being added just about every year.
The Missouri Compromise remained the law until 1854.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was made into law and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.
Opened up new lands for settlement .
Allowed white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded Kansas. While trying to determine the fate of slavery in Kansas, a civil war brought out there between the two sides.

The Compromise of 1850
Offset balance of power
Free states now outnumber slave states
Victory for the North
California Admitted to
Union As Free State
Slavery Issue in Utah and New Mexico Territories
Texas Border Dispute with New Mexico resolved, Texas gets $10,000,000
Slave Trade Abolished
Strong federal Enforcement of The new Fugitive slave Act
Many northerners didn't follow the fugitive slave act
Thought it was against their religious beliefs
Determined by popular sovereignty
Victory for both sides
States could be free states or slave states
The End
Slavery still legal
January 18th, 1782 - October 24th, 1852
Daniel Webster
Senator from Massachusetts
Wanted to keep union together
Left slavery alone
April 12th, 1777 - June 29th 1852
Henry Clay
Represented Kentucky in House of Representative
Elected to US Senate in 1849
Originally came up with ideas from compromise, but wanted them to all be separate bills
March 18th, 1782 - March 31st, 1850
John Calhoun
Served in Senate and Hosuse of Representatives in South Carolina
Rejected the Compromise of 1850
Died before complete compromise was officially signed (9-20-1850)
January 18th, 1782 - October 24th, 1852
Daniel Webster
Senator from Massachusetts
Wanted to keep union together
Left slavery alone
March 18th, 1782 - March 31st, 1850
John Calhoun
Served in Senate and House of Representatives for South Carolina
Rejected the Compromise of 1850
Died before complete compromise was officially signed (9-20-1850)
April 12th, 1777 - June 29th 1852
Henry Clay
Represented Kentucky in the House of Representatives
Elected to US Senate in 1849
Originally came up with ideas for the Compromise, but wanted them to all be separate bills
Offset balance of power
Free states now outnumber slave states
Victory for the North
California Admitted to
Union As Free State
Slavery Issue in Utah and New Mexico Territories
Determined by popular sovereignty
Victory for both sides
States could be free states or slave states
Texas Border Dispute with New Mexico resolved. Texas got $10,000,000.
Slave Trade Abolished
Slavery still legal
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
The Missouri Compromise and
the Compromise of 1850
Advocates of the
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Popular Sovereignty
The Kansas-Nebraska
Act
Victor?
Stephen Douglas went to Senate with the bill on January 23, 1854
Repealed the Missouri Compromise and divided the land west of Missouri into Nebraska and Kansas.
Debate occurred over the bill in Congress for three months.
The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1854, and President Franklin Pierce placed pressure on the Northern Democrats to accept the bill.
The House of Representatives than passed the bill on May 22, 1854 after the Northern Democrats accepted it.
The act was passed on May 30, 1854, when President Pierce signed the bill into law.
Stephen Douglas of Illinois, proposed the act.
At first, in 1853, he attempted to pass an act that would simply organize Nebraska.
South refused to create a new free-soil state
Then wished to organize the territory of Nebraska into two states - Kansas and Nebraska.
Each would decide upon the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty
Predicted Kansas would be pro-slavery, while Nebraska would remain free, and thus ensure the safety of sectional balance.
Senator Archibold Dixon of Kentucky helped Douglas with his bill by proposing an amendment that repealed the Missouri Compromise line.
Douglas' motive in creating the act was that he wanted to create a transcontinental railroad in between the lands of Illinois and California
To do this, the area crossed by the railroad would have to be entirely organized territory
Law enforcement would only be brought to the area with statehood.
Popular sovereignty is a doctrine in which political ideas are decided by the will of the people. The Kansas-Nebraska Act utilized popular sovereignty to deal with the issue of slavery.
Stephen Douglas and many northern Democrats adopted popular sovereignty and insisted that the doctrine be used in overcoming differences and arguments about slavery.
Douglas, as many others, thought that putting the issue of slavery in the hands of the settlers, popular sovereignty, and away from Congress would remove the issue.
The South was pleased with the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, as they could now possibly extend slavery north of the 36° 30´ latitude line.
The Kansas Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which infuriated the North.
Northern Whigs and Northern Democrats were upset about repeal of Missouri Compromise, who thought of the compromise as a part of the Constitution.
In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was passed which outlawed slavery in the Louisiana territory that was north of the the 36° 30´ latitude line.
Appeased sectional tensions regarding admission of Missouri as a slave state, the Tallmadge Amendment, and the growing difference in power between the North and South
Compromise of 1850: appeased sectional tensions when they rose again in regards to California being added to the Union as a free state.
North and South each made concessions to keep sectional balance.
Bleeding Kansas
New England Emigrant Aid Company was created.
"Border Ruffians"- Southerners from Missouri illegally voted in Kansas elections to benefit the South for a pro slavery delegate.
Lecompton legislature created the Statutes of Kansas.
Violence increased in Congress with senators Charles Sumner, David Atchison, and Andrew Butler.
September 1856- Marais de Cynge Massacre where Border Ruffians killed five Free State men.
Overall, 55 people died during "Bleeding Kansas".
Rise of the Sectional Issue
Once Again
After the acquisitions of California and Oregon, feasible land transportation was necessary
Transcontinental railroad: should it pass through the North or the South?
The section with the railroad would receive benefits in wealth, population, and influence.
Best route: ran slightly south of Mexican border
Gadsden Purchase of 1853: $10 million for small portion of Mexico
Allowed South to have more force in the railroad question, as the southern route would now be much easier to build.
Also, the southern route would never pass through unorganized territories, as a northern railroad would.
North then wanted to organize the Nebraska territory, since organized territory seemed to be the only way they could gain the influence of a railroad
Northerners were also poised to settle the Nebraska territory, and just needed the organization of it
Leading to the Civil War
After the bill was passed, pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to help swing the vote, whether or not slavery would be legal.
The clash between the two groups in "Bleeding Kansas" soon turned into armed conflict.
The bill also was a factor in the split of the Whig party. The northern Whigs opposed the bill, while the southern Whigs voted for it.
The northern Whigs soon reorganized themselves into the Republican Party, which was a non-slavery group including Democrats, Free-Soilers, and others.
The southern political party emerged to be the pro-slavery Democrats
Compromise of 1850 killed by the Act because of the North's resentment
The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought the slavery issue back into question
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
The Missouri Compromise and
the Compromise of 1850
In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was passed, which outlawed slavery in the Louisiana territory that was north of the 36° 30´ latitude line.
The Missouri Compromise eased sectional tensions regarding admission of Missouri as a slave state and the growing difference in power between the North and South
The Compromise of 1850 eased sectional tensions when they rose again due to California being added to the Union as a free state.
North and South each made concessions to keep sectional balance.
Rise of the Sectional Issue
Once Again

After the acquisitions of California and Oregon, feasible land transportation was necessary.
Transcontinental railroad: should it pass through the North or the South?
The section with the railroad would receive the benefits of wealth, population, and influence.
Best route= ran slightly south of Mexican border.
Gadsden Purchase of 1853: $10 million for small portion of Mexico
Allowed South to have more force in the railroad question, as the southern route would now be much easier to build.
The southern route would never pass through unorganized territories while a northern railroad would.
North then wanted to organize the Nebraska territory, since organized territory seemed to be the only way the North could win the right to build the railroad.
Northerners were poised to settle the Nebraska territory, and just needed the organization of it.
Advocates of the
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen Douglas of Illinois, proposed the act.
At first, in 1853, he attempted to pass an act that would simply organize Nebraska.
South refused to create a new free state.
Then, he wished to organize the territory of Nebraska into two states, Kansas and Nebraska.

Each would decide upon the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty.
Predicted Kansas would be pro-slavery, while Nebraska would remain free, and thus ensure the safety of sectional balance.
Senator Archibald Dixon of Kentucky helped Douglas with his bill by proposing an amendment that repealed the line set up by the Missouri Compromise.

Douglas's motive for creating the act was that he wanted to create a Transcontinental Railroad between Illinois and California.
To do this, the area crossed by the railroad needed to be organized territory.
Law enforcement and therefore, organization would only be brought to the area with statehood.
Popular Sovereignty
Popular sovereignty is a doctrine in which political ideas are decided by the will of the people. The Kansas-Nebraska Act utilized popular sovereignty to deal with the issue of slavery.
Stephen Douglas and many northern Democrats adopted popular sovereignty and insisted that the doctrine be used in overcoming differences and arguments about slavery.
Douglas and other Congressmen thought that putting the issue of slavery in the hands of the settlers (popular sovereignty) and away from Congress would solve the problem.
The Kansas-Nebraska
Act
Stephen Douglas went to the Senate with the bill on January 23, 1854.
Repealed the Missouri Compromise and divided the land west of Missouri into Nebraska and Kansas.
Debate occurred over the bill in Congress for three months.
The Senate passed the bill on March 3, 1854, and President Franklin Pierce placed pressure on the Northern Democrats to accept the bill.
The House of Representatives then passed the bill on May 22, 1854 after the Northern Democrats accepted it.
The act was passed on May 30, 1854, when President Pierce signed the bill into law.
Bleeding Kansas
New England Emigrant Aid Company was created.
"Border Ruffians"- Southerners from Missouri illegally voted in Kansas elections to rig the outcome of the elections and make Kansas a slave state.
The Lecompton Constitution created the Statutes of Kansas.
Violence increased in Congress with Senators Charles Sumner, David Atchison, and Andrew Butler.
September 1856- The Marais de Cynge Massacre occurred. Border Ruffians killed five Free State men.
Overall, 55 people died during "Bleeding Kansas."
Victor?
The South was pleased with the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, as they could now possibly extend slavery north of the 36° 30´ latitude line.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise, which infuriated the North.
Northern Whigs and Northern Democrats were upset about the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. They believed the Missouri Compromise was a permanent part of the Constitution.
Leading to the Civil War
After the Act was passed, pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to help swing the vote, determing whether or not slavery would be an institution in Kansas.
The clash between the two groups in "Bleeding Kansas" soon turned into armed conflict.
The Act also was a factor in the split of the Whig party. The Northern Whigs opposed the bill, while the Southern Whigs supported it.
The Northern Whigs soon reorganized themselves into the Republican Party, which was an anti-slavery group including Democrats, Free-Soilers, and others.
The Southern Whig party vanished. The major political party in the South became the pro-slavery Democrats.
The Compromise of 1850 was killed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act because of the North's resentment.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought the slavery issue back to the forefront.
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