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Tsunamis-Waves of Terror

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Benson "Buk Lau" Lau

on 7 February 2012

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Transcript of Tsunamis-Waves of Terror

Tsunamis A tsunami is a series of gigantic waves in which occurs when a huge amount of water has been displaced or disturbed either by an.... earthquake(must be at least 6.75 on the Richter Scale) ..., By Rejeeth Ganeswaran and Benson Lau volcanic eruption..., landslide..., ...or a meteorite that hits an ocean!!! The word "tsunami" comes from the Japanese word meaning "harbor wave". "Tsu" means harbor, and "nami" means wave. Tsunamis are also referred to as "seismic sea waves", but are also often mistaken as tidal waves and rogue waves. Tidal waves are formed by the gravity of the moon,and rogue waves are formed by strong wind currents, but tsunamis are usually formed by earthquakes under the sea floor. First, as an earthquake occurs, two tectonic plates are rubbed against each other with one of the plates rising and the other plate dropping. As the waves starts to travel more in distance, its velocity and wavelengths will become faster and longer. The velocity of the waves can be as fast as a jet airplane(720-800km/h) which gives the tsunami's ability to cross the Pacific Ocean in less than a day. Tsunamis were recognized back in early 426 BC when a Greek historian named Thucydides talked about the causes of a tsunami that had hit Maliakos Gulf,Greece in his book "History of the Peloponnesian War". He was the first one to state the cause of a tsunami was an underwater earthquake. Then after the tsunami approaches shore and shallower water, its speed decreases, because most of the speed is lost while travelling and reflected offshore by the sloping coastlines when the trough(bottom of a wave) touches it .This can also decreases the amount of wavelengths... Therefore, the steeper the coastlines, the taller the wave will be. This is called "shoaling". Above here is an equation used to define the speed of a tsunami..... "c"=speed of a tsunami per second
"g"=acceleration due to gravity(9.8m/s )
"H"=depth of ocean in meters 2 Above here is another equation but for defining the increasing height of a tsunami approaching shore. "h"=heights of waves
"s"=shallow
"d"=deep
"H"=depth of water One time on December 26, 2004, a 9.0 earthquake occurred near off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia as the third most powerful earthquake, and created an enormous tsunami that struck the coastlines of Southeast Asia. Over 200000 people died from the deadly disaster. Over 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean (Pacific's Ring of Fire) and for some strange reason, it happens the most in these 3 months: March, August, and November. The world's highest tsunami occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska on July 9, 1958 reaching a height of 518m... ...while the world's most destructive tsunami was created on August 27, 1883 when volcano Krakotoa erupted. The tsunami reached the speed of 724km/h, a height of 30m, and destroyed many parts of the East Indies. ...But the times between each wave may vary from 5 to 60 minutes long. -Stay away from the coast
-Run inland and go to higher lands/places
-Know your city's emergency evacuation routes
-prepare emergency kits in your car/house
-Teach others about it According to the U.S. Government's West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, an average of 2 tsunamis per year do damage to a piece of land and about every 15 years, a very big and powerful tsunami will occur. The best way to foresight tsunamis is by monitoring earthquakes. The most common instruments used are: seismographs, wave guages, Richter Scale, computerized buoys, special GPS's, and satellites to measure any changes in the sea level. Then, the vigorous motion would cause one column of water on top of one of the plates to rise and the other column of water on the other plate to fall creating a collision. That collision would then form a tsunami that can be a few centimeters tall. Tsunamis usually take place in oceans, but can seldomly take place in very big lakes, too. Luckily, the first wave of a tsunami is never the biggest and most powerful wave of them all giving the people near that area some time to go to safer shelters where they can survive the tsunami..... Japan is one of the countries in the world that has been struck by many earthquakes and tsunamis. From the year 684 AD to the year 1960, Japan has been hit by 65 tsunamis. That's because Japan is located right where some of the Earth's plates collide causing many natural phenomena in Japan. Another time on January 26, 1700, a tremendously large earthquake occurred near the west coast of North America and formed a huge tsunami that've destroyed the winter village of Pachena Bay completely leaving no survivors. During 1480 BC, a tsunami struck and destroyed the Minoan civilization near Eastern Mediterranean. ..and the shock tremors in the crest of the wave start to travel ten times the crest(top of a wave) in an outward circular motion. Tsunamis can affect us humans and the environment in the future and the present. It affects humans by decreasing the human population of the country affected, and also wipeout many community buildings. Then, if there are any survivors left, they might have no or very little shelter. Also the amount of hard work put into buildings are wasted because the buildings have been destroyed by the tsunami. Here's a list of things to remember when you encounter a tsunami: Many countries in the world have been hit by a tsunami, but Japan has been hit the most. Ever since the tsunami in 2004, tourism has been affected in the past and will in the future and present. Countries such as Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka have been hurt economically because of the tourism industries being affected. South-east Asian tourism has already been avoided by the Bali bombings, Iraq invasion, and the threat from SARS, but the tsunami just made it worse. The Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN) is a group of 10 countries from SE Asia that has been working on reviving the tourism industries. One of their strategies is by making safer beaches and making a tsunami warning system. Tsunamis are usually created by submarine earthquakes in the sea floor. Here's how a tsunami is formed. Well, I think this prezintation is done. I hope you like it and until now, I'll see you later. Bye! The amount of fresh water left on Earth can decrease if the tsunami contaminates it. Then, we might not have enough clean water to drink from. It can also affect the environment by damaging and killing many crops, plants, and animals that inhabit the land and get caught in the tsunami. Then, the animals that eat those plants/animals will have no food to eat and will die from it, so on... If a tsunami hit our community, it can also destroy our homes, leaving us homeless. There might not be any food for us in the future, because it has been wiped out by the waves. This is called "shoaling". Origin of Term Other Facts and Information Where Tsunanis Occur History of Tsunamis Ways To Survive Tsunamis How Earthquakes Form Tsunamis Effects on Tourism This is called "shoaling". By Benson Lau and Rejeeth Ganeswaran Over 30% less tourists are currently going to South East Asian areas because of the tsunami. Effects and What Tsunamis Affect
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