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Transcript of Korea
by Mikaela Lindemann, and Ida Zhu
Rise from rebel against Silla Rule
The founder was Wang Gen. He embraced his former rivals and brought them into his new dynasty
restructured government , made agricultural reforms, initiated a new educational system, and strengthened diplomatic relations with China
centralized power to the king, and the administration was carried out by bureaucrats and scholars who had achieved their position by examination, not birth.
Source of Power
Their source of power was coming from a strong dynasty before, having strong leaders, having advances in technology, and having a centralized government with administrators to watch over other affairs.
Example of leader: Gwangjong
Made laws to emancipate slaves
Created the national civil service examinations
Was a key figure in establishing Confucianism
Where they were located also gave them power because it was very easy to trade and to protect.
Had continuation of hereditary elite rule
Song Dynasty - Goryeo sought Song culture, Song sought Goryeo help aginst northern threats
Exports: gold, silver, ginseng, woven mats, pearls
Imports: brocades (woven fabric/silk), medicine, books
Liao Dynasty / Khitans - clashed due to Goryeo efforts to regain old territory
Exports: grains, stationary
Imports: silver, furs
Jurchens - Goryeo seen as parent country, but subjected to threats
Exports: farm implements, grains
Imports: silver, fur, horses
Exports: gold, brocades
Imports: mercury, spices, corals
Japan - expansion of Japanese influence westward prompted trade
Exports: books, ceramics
Imports: sulphur, mercury
Seon / Zen sect - Meditiation and spirituality ; Dominant sect of Korean Buddhism
Gyo sect - Observation of scriptures and sutras
Jinul - monk who unified Korean Buddhism
Combined Seon and Gyo schools of thought
Believed in a "sudden awakening" followed by continued meditation
Buddhism a major subject of art
Easy to Defend
Easy access to sea trade
Koryo enforced pro-Song policies in order to import advanced culture from Song,
missions visited Song bringing students and monks, Koryo's monk, Uich'on, studied Buddhist doctrines in Song and brought back many Buddhist books.
The Pyongnan Island prospered as an international trading port at the mouth of the Yesong River where Song and Arabian merchants traded.
imported Saracen culture through Yuan, and the Saracen developments bringing about similar developments in Koryo.
Japan and Southeastern Islands-
traders of western Japan and Tazaifu actively engaged in relations with Koryo, but the countires had an unhealthy relationship
Khitan invasions- had three different invasions-
First invasion (993)- invaded northwest border, withdrew and ceded territory when Goryeo agreed to end its alliance with Song China
Second invasion (1010)- attacked when the Goryeo was having internal power struggle
Third invasion (1018)- attacked once more after the Goryeo refused to return to the northern territories
Mongol empire demanded tribute from Goryeo, but they refused and the Mongol envoy Chu-ku-yu was killed. His death was used as an excuse to invade Goryeo
Artisans and merchants
Seen as commoners
Bore burden of taxes and military conscription along with commoners
Merchant economic and poltical power aided in overthrowing the Silla government
Sophisticated aristocracy cultivates artistry
Art used as form of religious expression under king's orders
Celadon, moveable type (entire Buddhist canon), paintings, inlaid metal, sutras, scriptures, manuscripts, laquerware, gunpowder
Agriculture and Industrial Production
Economic control centralized under power of the king and local aristocracy in order to increase production
Used a feudal structure
Taxes helped fund government
Production industries employed artisans, craftsmen, and even those of the lowest social ranking
Agriculture: fruits, grain, sesame, and ginger
Industrial: gold, silver, salt, silk, charcoal, paper, ink, and roof tiles
Rise and Fall
With social and political turmoil and external badgering, General Yi Songgye, took advantage, he forced the abdication of the king, and took himself to the throne. He then created the Joseon Dynasty.
The problems of the Goryeo was-
Reforming their government, causing people to form an unsuccessful coup against the king.
The question of land owning- land grant system broken down
Rising animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars.
The entire social structure was based on one's bloodline and relationship to the political system.
Majority of population were peasants, and slaves, were not eligible to hold government offices.
Land ownership also played major role in one's power and status
Free born peasants were not eligible to receive land and were obligated to pay one-forth of the harvest on land that belonged to the state or one-half of the yield on land that belonged to aristocrats
Their land system centralized economic authority in the hands of the king and subordinated all local administration to the central government in Kaesong
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