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Fundamentals of Networking

Basics of networksq
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John Hatton

on 9 April 2013

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Transcript of Fundamentals of Networking

Networking Types of Networks WAN Topologies What is WAN? The topology that would be associated and best suited with a wide area network is extended star. This is because one computer will be connected to a router and modem which will then be connected to servers the servers will then connect together forming a star. This is basically a star but allows more computers to connect to more servers. What is VAN? Topologies The Topology used in VANS is an extended star. This is because a network would be connected to a server which would be connected to another set of computers so data can be transferred and accessed easily. Network Differences Protocols And Standards Standards

802.2 A set of network standards, it gives access to computers and devices (Routers) it is used in offices and homes.

802.3 A set of network standards. Connects devices through cables. It is used in offices and homes. Technologies

Bluetooth wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances (5-10 meters). Protocols

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is used for connectionless systems (wireless), it sends small amounts of data in one packet at a time. It is used in the internet, and streaming things from the internet

TCP/IP it is an internet protocol that is used for connection oriented systems, and is used to identify a computer and all devices on a network. It is used to view the internet, which is seen through layers. Used in the internet.

FDDI it is a standard for data transmission in local area networks. It connects 2 or more local networks together. Used in connecting devices to networks.

AppleTalk a set of protocols to connect apple machines with each other. It is used within wifi and networking. Used in macintoshs. Wireless Technologies Protocols that are used in Wide Area Networks ensure that all computers will be able to a network. One Protocol used in WANs is FDDI. It is a standard for data transmission in local area networks. It connects 2 or more local networks together. They are used in connecting devices to networks. A Wide Area Network is a network that covers a wide area for example the internet covers the whole country and the whole world this is essentially a Wide Area Network. Wans are essentially LANs but a larger scale so you can communicate with computers around the world and share data. Topologies Protocols Network Card
A network card is a computer hardware component designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. They are usually found in laptops so they can connect to networks and are still portable. Repeater
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances. VAN LAN A data transmission network which guarantees data security and integrity through added computer control and communications, from the sender to the recipient. Protocols Protocols that are used in Wide Area Networks ensure that all computers will be able to a network. One Protocol used in WANs is FDDI. It is a standard for data transmission in local area networks. It connects 2 or more local networks together. They are used in connecting devices to networks. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office or small group of buildings such as a school or an airport. Because the network is local the computers are permanently connected to the network. WHAT IS LAN? The best topology for a Local Area Network is an extended star. An extended star explains how the computers are connected together and how they pass information from one computer to another. As you can see from the diagram of the extended star, there would be one computer which would connect to 4 other branches which would then connect to more computers. This is the best topology for a LAN because if there’s a problem with one computer other parts of the network will not get disrupted and will be able to carry on working. It also makes fixing a problem easier as there would not be a lot of computers connected by cables. There are two protocols that are commonly used in Local Area Networks. The first protocol used is TCP/IP.
TCP/IP is an internet protocol for connection oriented systems. It is also used to identify all the computers and devices on a network.

It is an internet protocol that is used for connection oriented systems, and is used to identify a computer and all devices on a network. It is used to view the internet, which is seen through layers. Used in the internet.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) sends small amounts of data in one packet at a time. It is used in the internet, and streaming things from the internet. Protocols Router
A device that forwards data packets from one local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) to another. Modem
A modem is a device that connects to a computer for sending and receiving digital information by telephone line. Wireless Access Point
A device that allows wireless communication devices to connect to a wireless network using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. The WAP usually connects to a router, and can relay data between the wireless devices such as computers or printers and wired devices on the network. 7 Layer OSI Model Network Services Directory Services Domain Control
Computers can be grouped into domains.
Controlled by a domain controller.
The domain can be managed as a whole group, rather than individually.

Account Management
Users are all given accounts, which allows them to login to the system.
Users can be split into groups, each with different privileges. an example of this is admin, teachers and students. Email
Email is an electronic version of a letter but when it is sent it is instantly received by the recipient. This is useful as you do no have to wait for the email to be delivered.

Remote Access
To connect to a network from a distant location. A user would connect from there home computer for example and connect to their office computer usually using a phone or cable network.


VOIP
This is technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the internet. This is done by digitizing voice into packets that are transferred over a network, an example of this is Skype. Database Servers
Run and manage large maounts of data in the background.
Web Servers
Compile and run various web based scripts and pages to provide web pages. Can also be used for multimedia for example audio streaming.
Proxy Server
Manage internet access across a large network.
Shared resources printing
Printers can be used across the network, so any user can print without being connected to a printer directly. Telecommunication services File Services File Transfer
Files on the same network can be accessed from any machine, as they are stored on a file server. An example of this is the college network.
File Sharing
File sharing isthe sharing of computer data or space in a network with various levels of access privilege. File sharing allows a number of people to use the same file in which they can read or view it, write to or modify it, copy it, or print it. Application services Networks Peer-to-peer networks
Disadvantages
Peer to peer networks have many disadvantages, an example is that the system is not centralised, making administration difficult. Another disadvantage is that the security is not very good so it is vulnerable to hacks and viruses. Also no link in the network is reliable so peer to peer networks are only useful for a small amount of computers and only suitable for applications that do not need a high level of security.

Advantages
The advantages of peer to peer are that the costs of a peer to peer network are cheaper than a client/server network this is because the hardware cabling and maintenance is reduced throughout the network. And one of the main advantages is that is is very simple to to create and maintain which ties in with the maintanance cost as it is easy to repair and run. Client-Server Networks
Advantages of Client/Server

Centralised Resources
All data stored in one location
Easier to backup files and data
Easier to find files and data

Efficient
Software optimised for multiple users
Hardware optimised for multiple users

Security
One machine can secure entire network
One central login

Scalability
Easy to add new resources

Disadvantages of Client/Server
If the server goes down, it takes part or the whole network with it.
It is more expensive to install.
Needs to be maintained by staff with high IT skills. Different protocols are needed for different systems to talk to each other. Protocols are used to communicate, authenticate and used for error detection and recovery.
Protocols are ground rules that are set so that hardware is compatible with similar computers. This is done to ensure backwards compatibility and compatibility from different manufacturers. Standards and protocols are what allow different computers, from different companies, running different software to communicate with each other. Each layer uses protocol communication to perform functions related to physical communications. This involves constructing packets and transmitting packets containing signals. The middle layers coordinate network communications, for example making sure that a communication session continues without interruptions or errors. The top layers perform work that directly affects software applications and data presentation, including data formatting, encryption, and data and file transfer management. The set of layers is called a stack. The OSI model provides a universal set of rules that make it possible for various manufacturers and developers to create software and hardware that is compatible with each other. This makes for organised communications. In the peer to peer networking all computers have the same authentication and every computer administrative power. Which is better for a company than using a client server as there are many computers connected to each other were there is one main computer and which has full permission and can give the full rights. this is a major disadvantage as only one computer would have a printer or a cd drive installed so each client would have to use that one computer.

A disadvantage of peer to peer networks is that they are not very secure so they are vulnerable to hacks and viruses which can cause a lot of problems. But this is a major advantage of client-server networks as the security is very secure as one machine can control the whole network and can control any other computer stoppping anyone from downloading or installing viruses .

a major advantage of peer to peer is that it is very cheap and easy to install and does not need a specialsit to install it. This also makes it easy to repair and run as it is simple . this however is a disadvantge of client - server as it needs to be mainted by staff with high IT skills which makes it expense ot run and install and harder to find a problem.
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