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Oralism vs Manualism

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Samantha Norton

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of Oralism vs Manualism

Oralism as a Movement
The Golden Age for Deaf Education
- 1818 to 1912 was known as the Golden Age of Deaf Education.

- ASL flourished during this time.

- From 1843-1912 more than 30 schools for the deaf were established by deaf teachers, hearing teachers and alumni of the American School for the Deaf and Gallaudet.

The Dark Age of Deaf History
- Samuel Heinicke developed and implemented oral methods of deaf education in Germany.

-He had his deaf and hard-of-hearing students feel the vibrations on his throat while he spoke, and had them recreate those vibrations on their own throat to mimick his speech or sound pattern. This method became known as "The German Method".

- These methods were adopted and used at the Clarke School for the Deaf and were strongly advocated for by A.G. Bell.

The Milan Conference
- September 6-11, 1880
- Milan, Italy
- About 164 delegates/day

- The debate over Oral instruction vs sign language was decided at this time.

- "The Second International Congress of Teachers of Deaf-Mutes"

- "The location chosen, the makeup of the organizing committee, the Congress schedule and the demonstrations, the composition of the membership, the officers of the meeting– all elements were artfully orchestrated to produce the desired effect so as not to fail the second time around."
What is Oralism?
A technique used in educating the deaf that relies solely on lip-reading, speech, and auditory training, instead of using signs.
1818 - New York School for the Deaf established
1820 - Pennsylvania School for the Deaf
1823 - Kentucky School for the Deaf
1829 - Ohio School for the Deaf
1839 - Virginia School for the Deaf
- About 40% of all the deaf educators were deaf themselves.
Schools Spread
Also - Indiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, Illinois, Georgia, South Carolina and Arkansas
Eight Resolutions
• Resolution 1: instruction by the oral method in deaf education must be preferred.
Voted 160 to 4 in favour on 7/9/1880.

• Resolution 2: effectively sealing the fate of sign language in the education of the deaf.
Voted 150 to 16 in favour on 9/9/1880.

• Resolution 3: providing the education of poor deaf children and adults.
Unanimously voted in favour on 10/9/1880.

• Resolution 4: creating guidelines on how to instruct deaf pupils orally.
Carried on 11/9/1880.

• Resolution 5: the need for instructional books for deaf oral teachers.
Carried on 11/9/1880.

• Resolution 6: to ensure the long-term benefits of oral instruction.
Carried on 11/9/1880.

• Resolution 7: the optimal ages for oral education and length of instruction.
Carried on 11/9/1880.

• Resolution 8: phasing out of sign-language-using pupils and to create segregation of sign and oral pupils if necessary.
Carried on 11/9/1880.
How Did This Affect Deaf People?
- Schools for the deaf were either shut down or forced to reform to the Oral method.

- Deaf teachers were forced out and replaced with non-signing hearing teachers.

- Quality of deaf education declined drastically.

- Deaf students were often physically punished when using their hands to sign.

- Hearing parents were told not to use any signs with their children. They were to use speech/lip reading only.

- Hard-of-Hearing students were most often the "deaf success" stories.

Kentucky School for the Deaf
Oregon School for the Deaf
- Strict Oralism is a poor tool for all people that communicate visually
- Limits their potential language fluency in a language
- Inhibits their full potential for communication
- Without fluency in a natural language, fluency in a second language is near impossible

- The oppression of Deaf people have made them come together and form a strong Deaf culture and society.

- The Milan Conference was a major turning point in Deaf culture as it showed how even through oppression, signed language is naturally the strongest and most appropriate form of language for Deaf people.
Video: (0:00-1:53)

Lane, Harlan L., Robert Hoffmeister, and Benjamin J. Bahan. A Journey into the Deaf-world. San Diego, CA: DawnSignPress, 1996. Print.




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