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The Two New States of Matter: Plasma and Bose-einstein condensate

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Ooi RY

on 11 April 2011

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Transcript of The Two New States of Matter: Plasma and Bose-einstein condensate

Plasma Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. How does it works? The gas dissociates its molecular bonds, rendering it into its constituent atoms. After further heating, it will lead to a great loss of electrons, thus turning it into plasma. A plasma contains charged particles, positive ions and negative electrons. Uder the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers. Bose-Einstein Condensate What are some examples of plasma? Gases in discharge tubes (fluorescent lamps and neon signs)
Welding arcs
Lightning
Auroras
The upper atmosphere (the ionosphere)
Stars and the Sun
the solar wind
interstellar gas clouds
The fireball made by a nuclear weapon
Comet tails
Bose–Einstein condensate is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C) How does this occur? a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on a macroscopic scale. This is an example of a bose-einstein condesate. A cold ice cube is still a solid.
However, when you get the temperature to a absolute zero... Atoms begin to clump. The whole process happens at temperatures within a few billionths of a degree so you won't see this at home. A group of atoms takes up the same place, creating a "super atom." There are no longer thousands of separate atoms. They all take on the same qualities and for our purposes become one blob.
Rubidium(Rb)
It is a soft silvery metallic element with the atomic number being 37. It is a slightly radioactive metal and a known Bose Einstein Condensate.
Example of Bose-Einstein Condensate Who discovered Bose-Einstein Condensate? This state of matter was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein in 1924–25. Bose first sent a paper to Einstein on the quantum statistics of light quanta (now called photons). Seventy years later, the first gaseous condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado at Boulder NIST-JILA lab, using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvin (nK) [3] (1.7×10−7
K). Seventy years later, the first gaseous condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman in 1995 at the University of Colorado at Boulder NIST-JILA lab, using a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvin (nK) (1.7×10−7K). Who discovered Plasma? Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube, and so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879 (he called it "radiant matter"). The nature of the Crookes tube "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897, and dubbed "plasma" by Irving Langmuir in 1928 Langmuir wrote: Except near the electrodes, where there are sheaths containing very few electrons, the ionized gas contains ions and electrons in about equal numbers so that the resultant space charge is very small. We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons.

What is Bose-einstein Condensate?
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