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History of Singapore:13th-14th Century
Transcript of History of Singapore:13th-14th Century
On 7 July 1926, workers constructing a reservoir near the summit of Fort Canning when they discovered ancient East Javanese style gold ornaments. It is said that the ornaments originated from the mid-14th Century, This armlet bears the motif of the Hindu kala,a god symbolizing time and destruction which figures prominently in pre-Angkor and Angkorian lintels, Javanese and Balinese art and temple motifs.This suggests to us that these ornaments possibly belonged a member the royal family of Temasek, who probably buried them in the face of imminent invasion. Unfortunately only a few pieces of the jewellery remain as some disappeared during the Japnese Occupation of Singapore.The remaining jewelry is now part of the collection of the history gallery in the National Museum of Singapore. Temasek Island History of Singapore
13th-14th century For Example... Documentary sources indicate that Singapore was occupied from around the beginning of the 14th century. In the 14th century, Temasek was a sizable port city, with a population of perhaps ten thousand people. Besides fishing activity on the island, ships from the great Asian kingdoms and empires anchored in the harbor.In 1320, the Mongol Empire sent emissaries to a place called Long Ya Men, or "Dragon's Tooth Strait," believed to be on Singapore Island to seek for war elephants. as many as two invasions at their city walls. This piece of information closely relates to the description of Temasek (or "Sea Port") in the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) as a prosperous entrepôt established by a Malay king at the beginning of the 14th century.
"And Singapura became a great city, to which foreigners resorted in great numbers
so that the fame of the city and its greatness spread throughout the world."
--Excerpt from the Sejarah Melayu(Malay Annals)
These ceramic fragments found in Fort Canning are part of unique and important find. The underglaze design of these sherds shows the compass directions, suggesting that this was a compass. How it was used:Ancient Chinese would pierce a needle through a piece of cork with a and let it float on a bowl filled with water or mercury.The magnetized needle would rotate accordingly, indicating the north-south position when it came to a rest. It is now on display in the National University of Singapore Museum’s Southeast Asian Ceramics Gallery. We can infer that the Chinese could have possibly used this compass to navigate their way be sea to Singapore possibly for commerce so it is likely that Singapore was a trading port. Temasek as a port city Chinese "Compass" Bowl Location of archaeological sites on the Singapore mainland with14th-century artefacts. Fourteenth-century Singapore was also mentioned in Vietnamese records where it mentions that a Vietnamese Prince, Tran Nhat Duat, could have served as an interpreter for the envoys from that land, the 14th-century Javanese poem Negarakrtgama where it mentions Singapore as one of many vassals that are placed ‘under the protection’ of the Majapahit empire and 16th-century poem, and 16th-century poem, Pararaton which lists ‘Tumasik’(Temasek)as one of the lands proposed to be conquered by Gajah Mada. These records suggest that Temasek was a great and properous island,probably due to the good trade. Other Records Images:
Slide 1,Chinese Junk image: Google Images,Chinese Junk clipart
Slide 2,The Lion City image:http://thenarrativecausality.blogspot.sg/2011/12/asian-legends-malaysia-lion-city-by.html
Slide 4,Chinese Junks image:http://www.worldoftemasek.com/index.php/article/history
Slide 5,Chinese Junk image: Google images,chinese junk clipart
Slide 6,Map of archaeological sites on the Singapore mainland with14th-century artefacts.archaeological sites on the Singapore mainland with 14th-century artefacts:Article,Sawankoloke-Sukhothai Wares fromthe Empress Place Site, Singaporeby Cheryl-Ann Low(Curator, Singapore History Museum)
Slide 7,8,9 images:http://www.worldoftemasek.com/index.php/article/archaeology
Slide 10,ceramics image:http://budsegoessingapore.wordpress.com Thai Ceramics found in Empress Place,Singapore Evidence from archaeological sites and shipwrecks indicate that ceramics from the kilns of Sawankoloke and Sukhothai kingdoms in Thailand were exported from the 14th to the 16th centuries during the Ayutthaya period.In 1998,an archaeological excavation was conducted at the Empress Place resulted in the discovery of ceramics produced by the kilns of Sawankoloke and Sukhothai in the 14th and 15th centuries.This adds another dimension to the knowledge about the trading relationship between Singapore (Temasek) and Thailand (Ayutthaya) during that period.Sixteen sherds of Sawankoloke-Sukhothai wares were identified inthe Empress Place which include celadon, white-glazedware, underglaze black ware, and a green underglazed sherd from a covered box. Ceramics from the Sukhothai kingdom (14th to 16th century).
The Singapore Stone, which was inscribed with fifty lines of ancient,unintelligible text, originally stood at the entrance of the Singapore River. The boulder was blown up by the British in the 19th century to clear and widen the passageway at the river mouth as part of their public works programme. The inscription covered a face of the boulder which had been split into two, but still has not been deciphered until now. Scholars have not agreed on the date and the language of the script. It has been variously dated from the 10th to the 14th century, and possibly of old Sumatran script. According to the Sejarah Melayu, the legendary 14th-century strong man called Badang, is said to have thrown a massive stone to the mouth of the Singapore River. A lone remnant of the Singapore stone is now a treasured artifact of the National Museum of Singapore. The Singapore Stone Wang Dayuan, a Chinese traveller describedtwo settlements in Singapore in his “Dao Yi Zhi Lue” which he wrote in 1349. . He describes Temasek or “Dan-ma-xi” as comprising two settlements – “Banzu” (after the Malay word “pancur” or fresh-water spring), a peaceful trading port city under the rule of a local chief. The second settlement he describes as “Long-ya-men” ,which was occupied by ferocious pirates who launched frequent attacks on passing merchant ships. Wang observed thatthere were Chinese living side by side with the indigenous people, and the items traded included red gold, blue satin, cotton prints, Quzhou porcelain, iron cauldrons, aromatic wood and fine hornbill casques.We can infer that Temasek had cultural and economical links with China. Wang Dayuan's Account Biblography Conclusion Based on sources like artefacts like the Singapore Stone and the gold jewelr discovered in Fort Canning and Empress Place,the Sejarah Melayu(Malay Annals),Wang Dayuan's "Dao Yi Zhi Lue" and other records, we can infer that Singapore was a vibrant and properous trading port and traded with other countries in the 13th-14th century. Information: World of Temasek-History, http://www.worldoftemasek.com/index.php/article/history,9 April 2013
Harold Frank Pearson,Singapore:A Popular History, 1819-1960,D. Moore(1961), Eastern Universities Press,pp1
Singapore, Curriculum Planning & Development Division(2007),Singapore From Settlement To Nation Pre 1819-1971,Textbook
World of Temasek-Archaeology, http://www.worldoftemasek.com/index.php/article/archaeology,9 April 2013
14th Century Singapore The Temasek Paradigm, http://www.academia.edu/1517234/14th_Century_Singapore_The_Temasek_Paradigm,10 April 2013
Cheryl-Ann Low(Curator, Singapore History Museum),Sawankoloke-Sukhothai Wares fromthe Empress Place Site, Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/nhb/include/getdoc.php?id=24&article=7&mode=pdf Temasek as a port:Artefacts In the 14th century,Singapore commanded the sea- routes between the Indian Ocean and the China Sea due to its strategic location.We can infer that Singapore was a vibrant trading centre during that period of time from evidence like artefects dug up in archaeology sites. Fragments of porcelain which originated from China from the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368) and the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) This shows that many traders came to Singapore to trade different goods. Compasses, wine cups and coins,vases from many other countries were found, implying that traders came from almost all around the globe. Gold Jewelry on Fort Canning