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Claims, Evidence & Warrants

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Melanie Martin

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of Claims, Evidence & Warrants

The warrant explains why and how the data
proves the claim
Reasonable interpretation or analysis of the facts
The argument's glue, links evidence to the claim.
Explains the significance. "So what?"
Does not assume more than the evidence supports
May consider and respond to possible counter-arguments (refute)
facts or data
which you refer to to
your claim. An unsupported claim will not convince an audience.
Expert opinion, cite sources
Primary research
A claim states
your position
on the issue you have chosen.
Claims have two parts: the topic and what is asserted about the topic
Topic: Not obvious
Reasonable (logos based)
Engaging, teach the reader something new
I think you should join my yoga class.
Yoga clears the mind and brings peace to the soul.
As an airline pilot, you need a clear mind and peaceful soul


Forks were not used in France in the fifteenth century.
Paintings of banquets from that period show no forks on the tables or people eating with them.
: Contemporary paintings are good indications of the customs of a time period.
Claim:It must have rained last night
Evidence:The pavement is wet
Warrant:Wet pavement is a good indication of rain
Claims, Evidence, & Warrants
You must organize and arrange your argument in a way that will make sense to the reader. The Toulmin Method of logic is a common and easy to use formula for organizing an argument.
Why do we need to organize our arguments?

Authors (including businesses) need to establish their credibility by backing up their claims with facts and evidence. This upholds their reputation as being reasonable in the eyes of the audience.

The evidence itself may include appeals to character (ethos), emotion (pathos) or logic (logos) in order to persuade the audience
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