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The Layers of the Earth

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Itida Gummy

on 18 February 2013

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Transcript of The Layers of the Earth

Hi! I'm Stellar356!
Welcome aboard my
ship. Today we'll be
travelling to the center of
the Earth. It will be hot, so
dress approprietly! Here we
go! First, let's see
a picture of what the
Earth looks like from
the inside. Crust Lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) Asthenosphere (upper mantle) Mantle (lower) Outer Core Inner Core Now that you know what the
layers are, lets explore them.
First up is the Lithosphere!
Here we go! Uppermost part of the mantle: The upper most part of the is considered to be
part of the lithosphere because it is mainly solid. It DOES NOT include the
whole upper mantle. This layer of the lithosphere is very thin, and
unlike the rest of the mantle, it doesn't have convection currents
going through it. Welcome to the Lithosphere, the outermost part of
the Earth! The Lithosphere includes 2 parts,the crust and the uppermost part of the. The crust includes 2 parts, the oceanic crust and the continental crust. The Lithosphere is the thinnest Layer of the Earth and is considered to be 50-70 km. thick. The lithosphere is divided up into tectonic plates that are always shifting, and are responsible for continental drift and some natural disasters. Oceanic Crust: The Oceanic Crust is a part of the Earths lithosphere that is found under the oceans. It is mainly made of igneous rocks (mainly basalt). It is thinner than the continental crust, with an estimated average of around 10 km. thick. It is considered to be denser than continental crust and has an approximate density of 2.9 grams per cubic centimeter. It is completely solid and was made by magma cooling into igneous rock repeatedly for thousands of years. Continental Crust: The continental crust is also a part of the Earth's lithosphere and is basically the continents, islands, and shallow seabeds. It is made up of all types of rocks, (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic) and is thicker than oceanic crust due to this. It is about 25-70 km. thick which is much thicker than the continental crust. It is 2.7 grams per cubic centimeter dense, and is the majority of the Earths crust. Okay. Now that we know about the lithosphere let's move on to the asthenosphere! Welcome to the Asthenosphere, the
layer under the lithosphere. The Asthenosphere is a
layer that is made up out of the upper mantle. The
composition of this layer is a goopy pudding like substance called magma, and is in between a solid and a liquid. The temperature in this layer is extremely hot, and is around 1400-3000 Celsius. The high temperatures cause everything in that layer to melt (including the rocks) which then forms the magma. This layer plays a huge part in the movement of tectonic plates, as the lithosphere floats on top of it and moves around on it due to the convection currents in the asthenosphere. These currents are caused by the extreme heat in the magma transferring it's heat to
another part of the magma. The asthenosphere is located at around 100-250 km. beneath the Earth's surface. It is around 85
km. thick. Whew! That was hot! Next up is the lower mantle, which is pretty much the same as the Asthenosphere. Due to it being so similar, we are just going to talk about it here, on the ship. The lower mantle is located at around 660 km. below
the Earth's surface and extends out until 2798 km,
making it 2128 km. thick. It is made out of magma, but is more dense then the asthenosphere. This layer also has convection currents flowing through
it. This is Earth's thickest layer, and is around
2270-3700 degrees Celsius. Okay, now that
we know about the lower mantle let's
move on to the outer core. Welcome to the Outer core, the
second most inward layer of the Earth!
This layer is located at about 1800 miles
beneath the crust, and is 1400 miles thick. This
layer is the only layer that is completely liquid, and is
composed from melted nickel and iron. It is believed to be between 4400-6100 degrees Celsius. Like the asthenosphere, this layer has convection currents in it. According to scientists this layer is responsible Earth's magnetic field, due to the convection of the liquid nickel and iron. Okay! Last up is
the core, so get
ready! Finally, Welcome to the core,the outermost
layer of the Earth! This layer is actually a solid
ball of nickel and iron. It is thought to be solid because
of the extremely high pressure in this layer. This layer is the hottest layer with a temperature of 6650 Celsius!!!!
It is found at about 5100 km. below the surface of the Earth. This layer is actually thought to rotate, due to it being loosely retrained by the other layers. It is 1200 km. thick, and has no convection currents in it. OUT WE GO!!!!! wow! that was
amazing! Thanks
for taking the
tour, and be sure to
purchase souvenirs!
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