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Contemporary Issues in Neuroscience: Biomechatronics - Epilepsy Treatment
Transcript of Contemporary Issues in Neuroscience: Biomechatronics - Epilepsy Treatment
Using Biomechatronics to prevent Epileptic seizures
Deep Brain Stimulation
Pros and Cons
Neurobionic project - Epilepsy
Implantable devices to monitor neural activity and stimulate nerves for therapeutic applications.
What are seizures?
Disturbances in the electrical activity of the brain
Also used to treat movement and psychiatric disorders
The processes underlying these outcomes and the effects of changing brain stimulation nor fully understood.
New device aims to maximise clinical benefit whilst minimising side effects.
Epilepsy Neurobionic Device
Alternative for patients unsuitable for surgery and unresponsive to medication
Detect seizure threat, therapeutic electrical stimulus applied to appropriate area to suppress seizures.
Dr. Brian Litt, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia mentioned:
Overall brain electrode implants are a developing process as an approximately 60% of people who have had the surgery are now seizure-free.
FARHEEN R | MARJORIE S | SHERRY W | MICHELL M
Figure 5. Electrical activity illustration (Lava, 2015)
Figure 6. MRI can showing the difference in epilepsy patient (Niholas, 2012)
Figure 7. Labeled brain diagram (Adams, 2015)
Video showing the Neurobionic device
Video showing brain stimulation
Figure 8. X-ray of electrodes in the brain
“Someday, these electrodes could be used to pinpoint where seizures start in the brain and perhaps to shut them down”
Adams. (2015). Hub Pages. Retrieved from Epilepsy: http://inaniloquence.hubpages.com/hub/The4LobesofTheBrain
Lava, N. (2015, March 19). WebMED. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://www.phawker.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/epilepsy2.jpg
NHS. (2014, November 25). Epilepsy. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from Diagnosing Epilepsy: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Epilepsy/Pages/Diagnosis.aspx
Niholas, K. A. (2012, February 28). Olyeats. Retrieved April 19, 2015, from Epilepsy: https://olyeats.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/epilepsy.jpg
BionicsInstitute. (2012, September 2). Epilepsy Neurobionic Device – Animation [Video file]. Retrieved from
BionicsInstitute. (2012, September 2). Deep Brain Stimulation – Animation [Video file]. Retrieved from
Long term effects unknown
Human enhancement (Cyborgs)
Whether the aim is to apply approved technologies
For treatment or to develop technologies.
Biomechatronics require a few basic systems to work properly:
To develop a stimulator to suppress seizure activity in the brain.
A portable device capable of monitoring the electrical activity of the brain via electrodes.
Figure 4. Electrodes planted in the brain for the epilepsy project
Biomechatronics vs Neuroprosthetics
Integrate modern day technology in biological organisms.
However, there exists still little understanding of how various brain circuits interact and how manipulations in one area affect other aspects of behavior and personality.
There has been recent studies in development of the second generation electrode brain implants being underway.
A near future of this procedure could provide for a much higher success rate in the treatment of Epilepsy compared to invasive medical surgeries.
Bionic eye to film
Equipped with a Bionic limb
Artificial vision system
Figure 1. Replacement of arm
Figure 2. Glasses input with a visual system
Figure 3. Camera to record everything the eye can see