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AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

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Bryan Chu

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

VEHICLES Brendan Dagys The Political Aspect Legislation & Liabilities Legislation Liabilities The Political Future Are autonomous vehicles legal?
Now?
Future?
When will they be? Nevada, Florida, California Chief concern from insurance companies Google What liabilities & responsibilities are involved?
Who's at fault in an accident?
Owner?
Manufacturer? Lexus, BMW, Audi First bill regarding legality: March 2011
In effect: March 1, 2012 Performance and safety guidelines by NDMV Other states moving toward legislation Two viewpoints:
Driver's fault
Manufacturer's fault Rules today
License
Cell phones
Insurance
Modifications Other states progressing Hachman, M. (2012, February 16). Nevada Approves Rules for Self-Driving Cars. PC Magazine Online. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA280304083&v=2.1&u=rpu_main&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w

Strumpf, D. (2013, Jan 29). Corporate news: Driverless cars face issues of liability. The Wall Street Journal Asia, pp. 19-19. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1282151380?accountid=13631

Thrun, S. (2010). Toward Robotic Cars. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 99-106.
doi: 10.1145/1721654.1721679

Urmson, C. & Whittaker, W. (2008). Self-Driving Cars and the Urban Challenge. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23(2), 66-68. doi: 1001109/MIS.2008.34

Wright, A. (2011). Automotive Autonomy. Communications of the ACM, 54(7), 16-18.
doi: 10.1145/1965724.1965731 The Ethical Aspect Bryan Chu Autonomous
Vehicles "Autonomous vehicles will be safer... the machine cannot have an argument with its wife; it can run 24 hours a day without getting tired" Professor Will Stewart
(Royal Academy of Engineering) Personal Societal - Is it ever ethical to give up control? System Overrides? “the areas of human existence in which fully automated vehicles might be useful … are almost limitless… " SELF-DRIVING CARS drive efficiently drive safely drive autonomously Free Will - Will refusing to buy an autonomous car even be an option? - Would autonomous cars have free will? Human to Robot - Do we require separate ethical codes? - Can we trust robots to do the right thing? OR AT ALL? - At what level of autonomy do robots deserve rights? system override? We already use driver-assistance technologies collision avoidance (precrash) systems intelligent speed adaptation hill descent control The major cause in 90% of accidents is human error 75% is caused by human error alone Cultural - Coming of age and other rituals - Lateness - Personal vehicles - Auto modification Economical - Public Transport - Shipping costs - Time costs - Fuel efficiency Autonomous
Technology “When will we realize that our artificial intelligence and autonomous-robotics research projects have been harnessed to manufacture killing machines?” Professor Noel Sharkey
(University of Sheffield) Overview

Conserves fuel by optimizing driving behaviour
Maintain a constant speed (i.e., zero acceleration/throttle)
Constant acceleration from stationary position Fuel Economy Optimization System (cont.) Environmental
Traffic signals, listed speed limit, headway spacing
Vehicular
Current speed, acceleration Fuel Economy Optimization System (cont.) Current vehicles are “general-purpose”
Single passenger vehicles
A lot manufactured since collisions are not an issue
Mostly short trips in city
Consumes less natural resources
Fuel economy greatly increases Vehicle Differentiation Trevor Budhram Environmental Persective Hypermiling System based on controlling vehicle driving behaviours
2 modes of driving
Congested
Non- Congested
Determined by environmental and vehicular input variables Fuel Economy Optimization System Concept in which vehicles used as a “rental” situation
Whenever is needed, will be prompted to arrive at location
Less privatized vehicles
An alternative to public transportation
Less vehicles on the road; less manufactured vehicles
When implemented, will cost less to rent Car-Sharing Main expectance: safer roads; no accidents
Since vehicle is self-driven it will reduce safety restrictions
Allows for mass reductions to be made
Roughly 10% mass reduction ; 6% improved fuel economy Lighter Cars Implementation of AV will have positive impact on environment
Contribute to lower emissions and fuel economy
Some Concepts that will contribute
Car-sharing
FEOS
Vehicle Differentiation Overview In-vehicle technology
Data processing system
Redundant system
Variables are inputted into both systems in which optimal driving solutions are outputted
Since vehicle is autonomous, the output are executed mechanically Fuel Economy Optimization System (cont.) MILITARY DRDO DAKSH GOALKEEPER CIWS MQ-1 PREDATOR MQ-9 REAPER C
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S 2008 4000 manual and semi-autonomous robots deployed by the U.S. in Iraq + - Don't our soldiers' lives take priority? Aren't robots more efficient? And more lawful? Couldn't we remove human immorality? Who is responsible? Is a machine conscience possible? Incentive to war? Implementation
Aspect Matthew Ibanez Testing Expectation Interpret street signs
Follow the rules of the road
Adapt to changes in the environment
Avoid accidents and collisions Solution GPS Coordinates
Kinematic Motion Study
Dynamic Risk Assessment Autonomous Technology in Today's Vehicles The DARPA Urban Grand Challenge DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Drive 100km in a city environment
Interact with other vehicles
Obey traffic regulations Google's Autonomous Vehicle Uses cameras and a laser
Has already driven itself 140,000 miles
Improve safety on the road
Created as a supplement for drivers Adaptable and adaptive automation for supervisory control of multiple autonomous vehicles.(2012).
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1), 428-432.

Autonomous vehicles: Application for testing. (2013). Retrieved March 13, 2013, from
http://www.dmvnv.com/autonomous.htm

Baber, J., Kolodko, J., Noel, T., Parent, M., & Vlacic, L. (2005). Cooperative autonomous driving:
Intelligent vehicles sharing city roads. Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE, 12(1), 44-49.

Buehler, M., Iagnemma, K., & Singh, S. (2009). The DARPA urban challenge: Autonomous vehicles in
city traffic

Ozguner, U., Stiller, C., & Redmill, K. (2007). Systems for safety and autonomous behavior in cars: The
DARPA grand challenge experience. Proceedings of the IEEE, 95(2), 397-412.

Wardziński, A. (2008). Safety assurance strategies for autonomous vehicles. (pp. 277-290). Berlin,
Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. The Technological Aspect Hamza Farooq Main Contribution to Environment Fuel Consumption and Emissions Three Major Components 1. Sensors
2. Cognitive Thinking Sensors High Frequency Sensors Low Frequency Sensors Adaptable and adaptive automation for supervisory control of multiple autonomous vehicles.(2012).
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 56(1), 428-432.

Autonomous vehicles: Application for testing. (2013). Retrieved March 13, 2013, from
http://www.dmvnv.com/autonomous.htm

Baber, J., Kolodko, J., Noel, T., Parent, M., & Vlacic, L. (2005). Cooperative autonomous driving:
Intelligent vehicles sharing city roads. Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE, 12(1), 44-49.

Buehler, M., Iagnemma, K., & Singh, S. (2009). The DARPA urban challenge: Autonomous vehicles in
city traffic

Ozguner, U., Stiller, C., & Redmill, K. (2007). Systems for safety and autonomous behavior in cars: The
DARPA grand challenge experience. Proceedings of the IEEE, 95(2), 397-412.

Wardziński, A. (2008). Safety assurance strategies for autonomous vehicles. (pp. 277-290). Berlin,
Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Laser Based Sensors Used for precision collision detection Functions as part of a forward detection device Ultrasonic Sensor Larger scanning area per sensor Still provides accurate measurements Best use in parking Cognitive Thinking Data Sharing Data Processing Sensory data collected sent over a network Closed network to prevent data leak or manipulation Allows for vehicles to make better decisions Biggest challenge currently faced for autonomous vehicles Vehicle decisions take into account other vehicles' decisions Vehicles can also create virtual world around them before making a decision Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, C., & Ambellouis, S. (2005). Broadband
vehicle-to-vehicle communication using and extended autonomous cruise control sensor.
Measurement Science and Technology, 16(6). 1363-1373. doi: 10.1088/0957-
0233/16/6/019
Jiménez, F.; Naranjo, J. E., & Gómez, O. (2012). Autonomous manoeuvring systems for
collision avoidance on single carriageway roads. Sensors, 12(12), 16498-16521. doi:
10.3390/s121216498
Nagel, R.; Eichler, S., & Eberspacher, J. (2007). Intelligent Wireless Communication for
Future Autonomous and Cognitive Automobiles. 2007 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles
Symposium, 716-721. doi: 10.1109/IVS.2007.4290201.
Stiller, C.; Farber, G., & Kammel, S. (2007). Cooperative Cognitive Automobiles. 2007 IEEE
Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 215-220. doi: 10.1109/IVS.2007.4290117.
Luca, R.; Troester, F.; Gall, R., & Simion, C. (2010). Autonomous parking procedures using
ultrasonic sensors. Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings, 691. Human intervention July 3rd, 1988 First Gulf War Aegis Missile Defense System Iraqi Airliner
290 passengers
66 children The crew trusted the system,
even though they knew it was
a non-hostile civilian airliner References Forrest, A. & Konca, M. (2007, May 1). Autonomous cars and society. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved from
http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-043007-205701/unrestricted/IQPOVP06B1.pdf

Palmer, J.(2009, August 19). Autonomous tech ‘requires debate’. BBC News Online. Retrieved from
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8210477.stm

Royal Academy of Engineering (2009). Autonomous systems: Social, legal and ethical issues. Royal Academy of Engineering, 3-7.Retrieved from
http://www.raeng.org.uk/societygov/engineeringethics/pdf/Autonomous_Systems_Report_09.pdf

Sharkey, N. (2007, November). Automated killers and the computing profession. Computer, 40(11), 122-124.

Sullins, J. P. (2010, September). RoboWarfare: can robots be more ethical than humans on the battlefield? Ethics and Information Technology, 12(3), 263-275.

Wong, S. (2009, August). If an autonomous machine kills someone, who is responsible? The Guardian Blog. Retrieved from
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/aug/19/autonomous-machines-systems-report Implementational Political Technological Ethical Environmental AUT ONOM OUS GROUP 1 CMN 432 # Communication in the Engineering Professions Research Project Presentation Section 06 What is an autonomous vehicle? Vehicle capable of... Decision making
Navigation
Propulsion
Inter-car interaction ALL without direct human interaction Conditional autonomy Full autonomy Now that you know... Brendan Dagys Political Aspect Hamza Farooq Technological Aspect Matthew Ibanez Implementational Aspect Trevor Budhram Environmental Aspect Bryan Chu Ethical Aspect What does the future hold? The Future ETHICS

Future complications (military)

ENVIRONMENT

Charging while driving

POLITICS

Google's aspirations

TECHNOLOGY

Vehicles as one unit

IMPLEMENTATION

Manufacturers working now Sam Wong (The Guardian UK)
Full transcript