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Surgical advancements in technology is an exciting, ever-growing field. What are some of the cutting edge methods being used in the field today?
What kinds of surgical advancements do we have to look forward to?
Which animal is playing a part in discovering new methods to penetrate and secure tightly?
Some of the new methods being used in the O.R. include a new kind of C-arm called the Artis zeego which has remarkable maneuverability and can be controlled right from the operating table. There has been advancements in the technology of 3D printing which has opened the doors to providing implants for reconstruction.
The future of 3D printing is also giving us the possibility of creating organs with our own stem cells. DNA nano technology is also progressing, giving us the ability to target specific cells for treatment.
Animals have a role in our ever –growing need to advance, for example porcupine quills are giving new insight into a way to penetrate skin with less force with the added the ability to hold securely. This has helped spark interest developing new types of adhesive solutions. Rats are another animal that is helping us discover ways to rehabilitate paralyzing spinal cord injuries., giving hope to the recovery of these patients.
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Darma, Stanley (2012). DNA Nanorobot Developed for Future Immune Responses Programming. Retrieved from http://www.medgadget.com/2012/02/dna-nanorobot-developed-for-future-immune-responses-programming.html
Draxler, Breanna (2013). 3D-Printed Skull Implanted in American Patient’s Head. Retrieved from http://blogs.discovermagazine.com
Faulkner-Jones, A., Jones, S., Greengough, J., King, J., Gardner, J. Courtney, A. Shu, W. (2013). Development of a valve-based cell printer for the formation of human embryonic stem cell spheroid aggregates. Biofabrication. 5 015013 doi:10.1088/1758-5082/5/1/015013 Featured Article Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/1758-5090/5/1/015013
Helmsley, Leona M. and Harry B. Surgical Suite. Experience the hybrid O.R. 360 Tour. Retrieved from http://nyp.org/pro/operating-rooms-of-the-future.html
Miller, Greg (2012). Robotic Rehab Helps Paralyzed Rats Walk Again. Retrieved from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/05/robotic-rehab-helps-paralyzed.html?ref=hp
Perkins, Sid (2012) Porcupine Quills Reveal Their Prickly Secrets Retrieved from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/12/porcupine-quills-reveal-their-pr.html
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When put through the printing process, the embryonic stem cells survived, which makes this a huge stepping stone for the application of printing organs.
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A scan was made of the patients head and a replica was printed out forming the missing parts of the skull using a thermoplastic compound.
Since the skull is printed in layers, they are able to create detailing on the surface that would add to cell growth.
With this method, 75% of this man’s skull was able to be replaced and implanted. Being that it was made of this thermoplastic makes it especially nice for the patient since it is lighter and non-corroding than former implant materials used.
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Operating Room of the Future
Surgeons, hospital leaders, and trustees tour the newly built Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Surgical Suite at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City.
The Suite consists of four operating rooms housing futuristic surgical, endoscopic and imaging technology including the Artis zeego angiography C-arm system developed by Siemens Healthcare and recently approved for use in the United States. The C-arm can rotate completely around an operating table scanning a patient from all angles, and offering surgeons detailed imaging to guide them in their procedure.
The Suite was established through a gift from The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust.
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One of the O.R. suites equipped with this C-arm system is specific to vascular surgery. The C-arm is extremely flexible and is able to articulate at almost any angle being controlled right at the O.R. table. It offers the physician much greater visibility by producing a 3D image that can assist in the visibility of even the smallest vessels.
Another of their suites was made specific to neurology, using the C-arm system to assist in mapping and navigating the brain. This video shows how the equipment works and is operating in their surgical suites:
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Surgical Advancements in Technology
Baptist School of Health Professionals
Running Head: SURGICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN TECHNOLOGY 1
Breakthrough work has been done on DNA nano robot technology.
DNA nano robots are created by taking long and short bits of DNA and letting them assemble into custom shapes.
They formed a barrel shaped box which carries a “payload” which will disperse and bind to specific target cells.
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3D printing for organ creation and transplantation is something many see as a possibility for our future.
Right now they are working on this technology and are at the point of having cell cultures which contain embryonic stem cells and are floating in a “bio ink” medium. Eventually they will have the ability to create an organ by use of our stem cells acting as the “bio ink.”
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3D printers are also being applied to areas such as tumor removal by creating a 3D image of a person with a difficult tumor so that the surgeon can practice on a model first.
Other applications for 3D printing are in plastic surgery for use in helping reconstruct patient faces that have a lot of damage, and the creation of organs for transplantation.
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To be able to recall and explain some of the current technological advancements used in the O.R. today.
To name and be able to briefly explain two future technologies that are in the works.
To be able to name which animal is opening the door to multiple innovative uses in the O.R. by its unique penetrating and holding capabilities.
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Some operating rooms are really taking the leap when it comes to exploring futuristic surgical capabilities. The NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is one of the leaders in incorporating cutting edge surgical equipment.
Two of their O.R. have been specifically tailored with a new kind of C-arm called the Artis zeego angiography C-arm system developed by Siemens Healthcare.
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The great thing about this is that barrel shaped box will only open and attack with the payload when the specific target cells are sensed, so there is almost no collateral damage.
With this technology they were able to specifically target two different types of cancer cells causing them to self-destruct.
Here is a video that explains this process in greater detail http://vimeo.com/36880067.
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Animals are playing a part in opening our eyes to discovering new inventive ways to do things by replicating what nature does naturally.
In 2012 a study was done on porcupine quills to find out how they can penetrate skin so easily yet be so difficult to remove.
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In this study they tested out the penetration of a porcupine quill to the same diameter needle and found the quill to penetrate at half the force of the needle. The tissue damage was also noted and for the needle was worse than the quill.
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The backward facing barbs that are on the quill are what makes the quill so difficult to remove, so they removed the barbs to see if it had any affect on the penetration force.
What they found was that the quill was more difficult to penetrate when the barbs were removed, therefore there must be a connection. They found that the barbs force is concentrated on the barbs in such a way as to ease the quill through skin with less force and tissue damage.
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Current Technological Advancements
I’m sure some of you have heard of 3D printing by now.
3D printing works by taking a scan of an object and then having it recreated by the printer which prints it in layers to form an exact replica of the scan.
Well, did you know that this method was used for the first skull implant on March 4th 2013?
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Animals in the O.R.
The number of uses for this kind of discovery are endless.
New adhesive tapes are being tested, ones that would stick more securely, wound closure and medical instrumentation could also be improved upon by applying the methods of the porcupine quill.
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Another way animals are impacting surgical advancement is in the research of robotic rehab.
Rats who have been paralyzed by spinal cord injuries have been given a combination of drugs, electrical stimulation and assisted rehabilitation.
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With these rats they were able to get them to walk, retrieve food, and climb over small barriers.
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A man that was paralyzed from a car accident received similar treatment and had some recovery from his spinal injury.
This study helps to explain a bit of why he showed some recovery.
This research gives us hope to the role that robotic rehab will have on humans in the future.
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It’s exciting to see the new advancements that are happening in the operating room today and also to see what new things we have to look forward to. The technology involved in these break-through discoveries opens the doors to more possibilities than we can imagine. My hope is to get to see and be a part of these advancements someday.
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The DNA Nano Robot explained...
Strands of DNA are combined to create a precise and custom shape- "DNA Origami"
This shape creates a clam shell type case that has hinges at the back, and latches in front
Inside the clam shell is a "pay load" connected to links which attach to anchors that hold the "pay load" in place, inside
The surface of the clam shell case has a duplex designed to bond to the "target cell"
Once the duplex bonds, the clam shell case opens and releases the "pay load"
The "pay load" then attacks the "target cell"