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The 1970s: Nixon and Carter

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by

Kasper Rasmussen

on 16 December 2014

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Transcript of The 1970s: Nixon and Carter

Nixon and Power Politics
Carter's Idealism
Carter's foreign policy
Détente
SALT I 1972 - sufficiency over superiority

The China Card, 1971-72

Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, 1971
The 1970s: Nixon and Carter
Challenges:
Vietnam
Resources
US power and prestige
Triangulation
USA
Western Europe
Japan
USSR
China
Vietnam
Realpolitik - power - centralization
What to do?
Vietnamization + heavy bombing of the North (and Laos and Cambodia)

Linkage - working with China and the USSR
How did the Vietnam War run and end during Nixon/Ford?
1969: New North Vietnamese offensive followed by US bombing of supply routes into Cambodia, but also troop withdrawals and Paris peace talks

1970: Invasion of Cambodia - later stopped by Congress

1972: US elections - announcement that peace was at hand - Christmas bombings to safeguard Thieu government

1973: Peace treaty, but continued arms supply

1975: Us withdrawal - fall of Saigon


US Naval Captain
Peanut farmer
Governor, Georgia
President, 1977-1981
Emphasis on human rights and idealistic foreign policy (guided by Christian morality)
Foreign policy-making
vs
Zbigniew Brzezinski
National Security Advisor
Polish-born political scientist
Realist like Kissinger, but hated the USSR - wanted a policy of more direct confrontation
Most influential during the middle and end of the administration


Cyrus Vance
Establishment-man
Lawyer
Wanted to continue détente
Most influential in the beginning to middle of the administration
Resigned in 1980 over Iran rescue operation
Human rights
Became important part of the administration's foreign policy
Interference with the internal matters of other states - making state-to-state relations conditional upon non-violation of human rights
Rise of neo-conservatism: disgruntled former liberals actively used human rights as a foreign policy issue against the Communist world
Middle East
Camp David Accords, 1979
Carter Doctrine in Persian Gulf, 1980
Iranian hostage crisis, 1979-1981
Soviet Union
SALT II, 1979
Failure of détente
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
High focus on human rights
Full transcript