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Types of Colonization
Transcript of Types of Colonization
In general, there are four types of colonization. These are:
* Economic Companies
* Settler Rule
* Direct Rule
* Indirect Rule
In the early days of colonialism, European nations allowed private companies to rule parts of Africa. These companies were ran by businessmen who wanted to exploit the natural resources of Africa. These companies set up their own ways of taxing and hiring workers. These companies paid for all the costs in starting and running their colonies.
Settler rule is the kind of colonialism in southern Africa in which European settlers forced direct rule on their colonies. Settler colonies were different from other colonies in Africa because a significant number of immigrants from Europe lived in these colonies.
The French, Belgians, Germans, and Portuguese are considered to have used this model in governing their African colonies. They had centralized administrations, usually in urban centers, that stressed policies of assimilation. This means that the colonialists had the intention of "civilizing" African societies so they would be more like Europe.
Primarily, the British used indirect rule to govern their colonies. This system of governance used indigenous African rulers within the colonial administration, although they often maintained an inferior role. Overall, it was a more cooperative model than direct rule.
For example, the British East Africa Company was started in 1888, and colonized Kenya for Britain. It governed Kenya until 1893. The British South Africa Company is another example of company rule, was started in 1887. Using force and coercion, this company colonized three territories in south-central Africa: Nyasaland (Malawi), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). The Company ran these colonies until 1923.
These immigrants or settlers were not like missionaries or European colonial government workers. Just like early European immigrants to the United States and Canada, settlers in Africa planned to make the colonies their permanent home.
In order to succeed in the colonies, settlers demanded special political and economic rights and protection. Security and wealth for the settlers depended on abusing the Africans economically and politically. Because of this, settler rule was characterized by its unkind rules toward the indigenous African population.
Settler colonies were found mainly (primarily) in southern Africa including the colonies of South Africa, Southern and Northern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe and Zambia), Angola, Mozambique, and South West Africa (Namibia). Settlers from Holland, Britain, Germany, and Portugal settled these areas. In addition, settler rule was practiced in Kenya, a British colony in East Africa, and in Algeria, a French colony in North Africa.
As part of this strategy, colonialists did not try to negotiate governance with indigenous African rulers and governments. Indigenous authorities had a subordinate place in these administrations. Direct rule also used the strategy of "divide and rule" by implementing policies that intentionally weakened indigenous power networks and institutions.
Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator, used this system of government first in Nigeria and later brought it to British East Africa. This system of government assumed that all Africans were organized as "tribes" with chiefs.
However, this was not always the case. As a result, indirect rule increased divisions between ethnic groups and gave power to certain "big men" who had never had it before in pre-colonial history. Consequences of these significant changes in social organization and identity are still being felt today.