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Transcript of Bio
Death: November 7th 1913 Nationality: Englishman born in Wales (controversial) Fields: Exploration, Biology, Biogeography, Social Reform, Botany Contributions & Accomplishments contributions to the developmentt of evolutionary theory
co-discovered natural selection
concept of warning colouration in animals
Wallace effect (a hypothesis on how natural selection couls contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization).
"Father of Biogeography"
Wallace line (divides Indonesia species into two distinct parts "Father of Biogeography"
Contributions to the development of evolutionary theory
Co-disovered natural selection
Concept of warning colouration in animals
Wallace Effect Discoveries & Exploration Details Marked zoological differences proposing a boundary now known as the Wallace Line. An example of one of his better known species on this trip was the gliding tree frog. Known as Wallace's flying frog.
While Wallace was exploring he refined his thoughts about evolution and had his insight on natural selection. A map from "The Malay Archipelago" showing where Wallace travelled and indicated the chains of volcanoes. A map from "The Malay Archipelago" showing where Wallace explored and indicating the chains of mountians. Wallace corresponded with Darwin about many topic such as:
Effects of Natural Selection on hybridization and divergence of species Wallace investigated and wrote on many topics other than evolution. These included spiritualism, support for the women's suffrage, and dangers and wastefulness of militarism.
For Wallace, spiritualism was a matter of science and philosophy rather than a religious belief. Comparing Darwin and Wallace's Theories About Evolution Natural Selection Darwin's emphasized competition between individuals of the same species to survive and reproduce, while Wallace emphasized environmental pressures on varieties and species forcing them to become adapted to thier local environment. Warning Colouration and Sexual Reproduction Wallace believed that it seemed likely that the conpicuous colour scheme served as a warning to predators and could have evolved through natural selection.
Warning Colouration was one of a number of contributions Wallace made in the area of the evolution of animal colouration in general and the concept of protective colouration in particular. Wallace Effect
the hypothesis that natural selection favors the evolution of mechanisms that ensure the reproductive isolation have reached the level of elementary biological species. Reproductive isolation prevents the production of sterile hybrids which compete for food reserves. Wallace's Biogeography Wallace created zoogeographic regions that we still use today. He classified Islands based on their distribution of animals and plants into 3 groups.
1. Oceanic Islands (Have never been a part of any large continent).
He divided continental islands into two seperate classes depending on whether they had recently been part of a continent, or much less recently and discussed how that difference affected the flore and fauna. Environmental Issues Wallace did extensive work in biogeography which made him aware of the impact of human activities on the natural world. He warned about the dangers of deforestation and soil erosion, especially in tropical climates prone to heavy rainfall. An Experiment Wallace designed an experiment in which he set up two objects along a six-mile stretch of canal. Both objects were at the same height above the water and in a straight line with a telescope he mounted on a bridge. When seen through the telescope, one object appeared higher than the other, showing the curvature of the earth. Wallace developed his own distinct evolutionary views which diverged from Darwin's, and was considered by many to be a leading thinker on evolution in his day, whose ides could not be ignored. Death of Wallace "the last giants belonging to that wonderful group of intellectuals that included, among others, Darwin, Huxley, Spencer, Lyell, and Owen, whose daring investigations revolutionized and evolutionized the thought of the century." - New York Times Wallace accepted the idea of transmutation of species in part because he was always inclined to favour radical ideas in politics, religion and science, and because he was unusually open to margnal, even fringe, ideas in science. Awards, Honours, and Memorials Order of Merit (1908)
Royal Society's Royal Medal (1868)
Copley Medal (1908)
Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal (1892)
Linnean Society's Gold Medal (1892)
Darwin-Wallace Medal (1908)
Elected head of the anthropology section of the British Association in 1866
Elected president of the Entomological Society of London (1870)
Elected head of the biology section of the British Association (1876)
Elected to the royal Society (1893)
Asked to chair the International Congress of Spiritualists (1898)
The School formerly named Richard Hale, was named after Wallace (1928)
A medallion was placed in Westminster Alley with his name on it (1915)
Honoured by having craters on Mars and the Moon named after him
A biodiversity research in Sarawak named in his memory (2005)
Geography and Biology building at Swansea University is named after Wallace
A large lecture theatre at Cardiff University is named after Wallace