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The Growth of Cattle Industry
Transcript of The Growth of Cattle Industry
the Cattle Industry BY: MICHAEL CAMPOS
MICAEL SANG The Cattle Industry
Becomes Big Business The cattle industry grew rapidly due to availability of railroads in 1800s. The railroads helped in transportation of cattle to the markets. Open-range cattle industry started to expand to different cities making the industry profitable.
Horses and cattle had been introduced to the New World by Spanish explorers.
In 1519 Hernán Cortés was the Piebald Pinto who brought quick horses to Mexico.
The longhorn cattle brought by the Spaniards, first to the West Indies and then to Mexico. Long Horn Cattle Longhorn cattle were brought by the Spaniards.
The cattle are accustomed to the dry grasslands of Andalusia, in Southern Spain. Hernán Cortés de
Monroy y Pizarro Was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Was the Piebald Pinto who brought quick horses to Mexico. The Influence of Mexican culture As American as the cowboy seems today, his way of life stemmed directly from that of those first Spanish ranchers in Mexico.
The American settlers had never managed large herds on an open range, and they learned from their Mexican neighbors how to round up, rope, brand, and care for the animals.
The American cowboy's clothes, food, and vocabulary were also heavily influenced by his Mexican forerunner.
The Mexican vaquero was the first to wear spurs, which they attached with straps to his bare feet and used to control their horse.
The Mexican "rancho" became the model for the American ranch.
The bandanna became such an all-purpose necessity that it was once proposed as the official flag of the open range.
The bandanna known as a cowboy trademark served as a sun screen, tourniquet, dust mask, washcloth, strainer for muddy water, face covering for dead cowboys, noose for hanging horse thieves, and blindfold for skittish horses.
The six-shooter--the gun that could fire six shots without reloading and that came to symbolize not only the cowboy but the entire Old West. The Importance of the Railroads Bandanna The Six-Shooter Despite the plentiful herds of cattle in Texas and throughout the West, cowboys were not in great demand until the railroads reached the Great Plains.
Before the Civil War, ranchers for the most part didn't stray far from their homesteads with their cattle. They sold some hides and animal fat, or tallow, to Western markets along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico but generally just watched their herds increase. There were, of course, some exceptions.
During the California gold rush in 1849, some hardy cattlemen on horseback braved a long trek, or drive, through Apache country and across the desert to collect $25 to $125 a head for their cattle. Others suffered through quicksand and hazardous swamps to reach the market in New Orleans. City Dwellers Demand More Beef When the Civil War ended the demand for beef shout through the roof
When the Chicago Union Stock Yards opened on Christmas Day of 1865 the cattlemen heard rumors that the longhorns would be worth $40
During the spring of 1866 railroad were able to reach Sedalia, Missouri, which means ranchers would be able to ship their cattle to the throughout the markets in the east like Chicago.
In 1866 farmers had blockade cattle in Baxter Springs, Kansas, and had prevented them from reaching Sedalia.
Cattlemen found a convenient route thanks to cattle dealer Joseph McCoy from Springfield, Illinois.
Joseph went to a couple western towns with plans to make a shipping yard where the trails and rail lines came together.
The state that turn down this plan was Missouri and the state that accepted this plan was Kansas The Truth About Cowboys A cowboy generally worked 10 to 14 hours a day on a ranch and 18 or more on the trail, alert at all times for dangers that might harm or upset the herds.
The average cowboy was a wiry young man of 24, bowlegged from a life in the saddle. Though some cowboys were as young as 15 ; most were broken-down by the time they were 40.
The ordinary cowboy worked hard all summer for cattlemen who often banned drinking, gambling, and cursing. When winter came, he lived off his savings or rambled from ranch to ranch, doing odd jobs for a meal and a bed.
Legendary figures like James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok and Martha Jane Cannary (Calamity Jane), although serving as models for the Western hero, never dealt with cows. Their fame had more to do with stories in popular dime novels than with real cowboy life. James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok Hickok served as a scout and a spy during the Civil War and, later, as a marshal in Abilene, Kansas.
He was a violent man who was shot and killed while holding a pair of aces and a pair of eights in a poker game, a hand still known as the "dead man's hand." Martha Jane Cannary (Calamity Jane) Calamity Jane was an expert markswoman who dressed like a man.
She spread exaggerated stories about herself, and some historians believe she actually may have been a scout for Colonel George Custer. Wild Bill and Calamity Jane had also been entertainers--Hickok on the stage in a play called Scouts of the Prairie and Calamity Jane in Wild West shows. Although the shows drew large audiences, they bore little resemblance to the real life of the West. The End of the Cattle Frontier Almost as quickly as cattle herds had multiplied and ranching had become big business, the cattle frontier met its end. Overgrazing of the land, extended bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire were largely responsible.
The promise of great profits to be had on the plains drew increasing numbers of ranchers, but herds of cattle crowded the plains and destroyed the grass.
Sheepherders also invaded in great numbers, sparking range wars with cattlemen, who complained that "everything in front of a sheep is eaten and everything behind is killed."
In 1883 a drought struck the Great Plains; water holes and streams dried up, Prairie fires blazed, and at least one desperate rancher fought a fire with blood from slaughtered longhorns.
After 3 years later another drought struck and turned the overgrazed land to rock-hard desert. Temperatures soared to 115 degrees, leading Texans to claim that their potatoes were coming up cooked and ready to eat.
Soon after the dry, blazing heat was followed by the worst blizzard in American history. On January 28, 1887, temperatures fell to 68 degrees below zero and winds reached 60 miles an hour. For three days and nights, snow fell at the rate of an inch an hour. Hundred-foot ravines filled with snow and trapped cattlemen and their herds.
As a result of the disaster ranchers lost from 40 to 90 percent of their livestock. More Facts About The End of the Cattle Frontier At the end of the die-up of 1887 lots of ranchers went to small herds of high grade stock that would produce more meat per each animal.
High grade cattle needed care and lots of food for the year.
Farmer would buy or rent land to grow hay for their cattles.
Farmer would fence their land to keep the cattle from messing up the their land, this invention came from a farmer named Joseph Glidden.
Farmers would use this idea because it was easy to use and didn't cost much.
In 1874 Glidden started a business and sold 27 million pounds of barbed wire . Joseph Glidden Inventor of the barbed wire fence. Joseph "Cowboy" McCoy Was a livestock trader in Chicago. He wanted to bring long horned cattle, distribute them to Chicago, and from there distribute them to the east. THE END