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The Universe

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Marje Constantino

on 8 July 2014

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Transcript of The Universe

The Universe
all existing matter and space considered as a whole; the cosmos.
Universal Theories
The Solar System
- the collection of eight planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets.
The Celestial Bodies
Our universe contains an amazing array of celestial objects, sometimes referred to
as celestial bodies or astronomical objects.
Though most of the observable cosmos
is composed of empty space, this cold,
dark void that is sparsely populated by
a number of astronomical objects.
These bodies fills the empty space
of the universe.
The Universe
Based on Myths
Mayan's of Central America
Norsemen of Scandinavia
skull - sky
body - land
blood - bodies of water
Based on Religious View
First Day
Light as the Day and Darkness as the Night
Second Day
a Firmament in the midst of the waters
Third Day
division of waters from lands
dry Land as Earth and gatherings of waters as Seas
Fourth Day
vegetation, plants yielding seed and trees bearing fruit
Sun, Moon, and Stars
Fifth Day
Animals on Air and on Water
Sixth Day
Animals on Land and Man (Adam and Eve)
Based on Scientific Explanation
Big Bang Theory

George Gamow
- universe is made up of protons, neutrons, electrons

exploded because of too much heat

- Temperature variations on Mercury are the most extreme in the solar system ranging from 90 K to 700 K. The temperature on Venus is slightly hotter but very stable.
- closest planet to the Sun and the eighth largest. Mercury is slightly smaller in diameter than the moons Ganymede and Titan but more than twice as massive.
orbit: 57,910,000 km (0.38 AU) from Sun
diameter: 4,880 km
mass: 3.30e23 kg
- second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest. Venus' orbit is the most nearly circular of that of any planet, with an eccentricity of less than 1%.
orbit: 108,200,000 km (0.72 AU) from Sun
diameter: 12,103.6 km
mass: 4.869e24 kg
- Venus' surface is actually hotter than Mercury's despite being nearly twice as far from the Sun
- third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest
orbit: 149,600,000 km (1.00 AU) from Sun
diameter: 12,756.3 km
mass: 5.972e24 kg
The Sun
- the fourth planet from the Sun and the seventh largest:
orbit: 227,940,000 km (1.52 AU) from Sun
diameter: 6,794 km
mass: 6.4219e23 kg
- referred to as the Red Planet.
- the fifth planet from the Sun and by far the largest
orbit: 778,330,000 km (5.20 AU) from Sun
diameter: 142,984 km (equatorial)
mass: 1.900e27 kg
- more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined
" the Great Red Spot "
- the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest:
orbit: 1,429,400,000 km (9.54 AU) from Sun
diameter: 120,536 km (equatorial)
mass: 5.68e26 kg
- the least dense of the planets
- Saturn's rings are extraordinarily thin
- the seventh planet from the Sun and the third largest (by diameter)
orbit: 2,870,990,000 km (19.218 AU) from Sun
diameter: 51,118 km (equatorial)
mass: 8.683e25 kg
- Uranus' blue color is the result of absorption of red light by methane in the upper atmosphere.
- the eighth planet from the Sun and the fourth largest (by diameter).
orbit: 4,504,000,000 km (30.06 AU) from Sun
diameter: 49,532 km (equatorial)
mass: 1.0247e26 kg
- Neptune also has rings.
the outermost is Adams
next is an unnamed ring co-orbital with Galatea
then Leverrier (whose outer extensions are called Lassell and Arago)
finally the faint but broad Galle.
" Great Dark Spot "
- The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system.
- It is often said that the Sun is an "ordinary" star.
- the surface of the Sun
- they look dark only by comparison with the surrounding regions
The Moon
- is the only natural satellite of Earth
- it is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun.
- it has no global magnetic field.
stars are known as constellations.
the most plentiful objects in the visible universe.
They provide the light and
energy that fuels a solar
They also create the heavy elements that are necessary
to form life.
A star's brightness is known
as its magnitude
Main Sequence
Red Giant Stars
the point in a star's evolution during which it maintains a stable nuclear reaction.
It is this stage during which a star will spend most of its life
a large star that is reddish or orange in color. It represents the late phase of development in a star's life
The outer surface of the star expands and cools, giving it a reddish color. Red giants are very large, reaching sizes of over 100 times the star's original size. Very large stars will form what are called red supergiants
White Dwarfs
the remnant of an average-sized star that has passed
through the red giant stage of its life. After the star
has used up its remaining fuel.
At this point the star may expel some of its matter into
space, creating a planetary nebula. What remains is
the dead core of the star. Nuclear fusion no longer takes
The core glows because of its residual heat. Eventually
the core will radiate all of its heat into space and cool
down to become what is known as a black dwarf.
White dwarf stars are very dense.
Their size is about the same as that of the Earth, but the contain as much mass as the Sun.
They are extremely hot, reaching temperatures of over 100,000 degrees.
Brown Dwarfs
could also be called a failed star.
it will glow only briefly until its energy dies out.
What remains is a brown dwarf. It is a giant ball of gas that is too massive to be a planet but not massive enough to be a star.
They are smaller than the Sun but several times larger than the planet Jupiter.
Brown dwarfs emit no light or heat.
They could account for some of the dark matter suspected to exist in the universe.
Variable Stars
a star that changes in brightness.
Stars usually change their brightness when they are young and when they are old and dying.
They are classified as either intrinsic or extrinsic.
Intrinsic variables change their brightness because of conditions within the stars themselves.
Extrinsic variables change brightness because of some external factor, like an orbiting companion star.
These are also known as eclipsing binaries.
Binary Stars
Many stars in the universe are part of a multiple star system.
A binary star is a system of two stars that are gravitationally bound to each other.
They orbit around a common point, called the center of mass.
It is estimated that about half of all the stars in our galaxy are part of a binary system
In 2006, the International
Astronomical Union (IAU) redefined a planet as a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded
by its own gravity,
Terrestrial Planets
Also known as rocky planets, these bodies are composed primarily of rock and metal and have very high densities.
They also tend to be relatively small in size and have slow periods of rotation.
The terrestrial planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Gas Giants Planets
Four of the outer planets in our solar system are known as gas giants. They are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Gas giants are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium and are quite large in size.
Gas giants also have low densities and tend have a very fast period of rotation.
Planetoids is a name given to group of objects that are too large to be asteroids and too small to be planets.
Thousands of these objects are known to be orbiting the outer regions of our solar system in an area known as the Kuiper Belt.
Many astronomers believe that the planet Pluto and its moon Charon may actually be Kuiper belt objects and not planets.
Little is known about these distant objects.
They are believed to be formed of the ancient material that formed the Solar System.
New Moon
The Moon's unilluminated side is facing the Earth.
The Moon is not visible (except during a solar eclipse).
Waxing Crescent
The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing
First Quarter
One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
Waxing Gibbous
The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
Full Moon
The Moon's illuminated side is facing the Earth.
The Moon appears to be completely illuminated by direct sunlight.
Waning Gibbous
The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
Last Quarter
One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
Waning Crescent
The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight.
The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
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