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Daryl Rentfro

on 30 August 2016

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In the early 15th century, the sea-faring countries of Europe hoped to extend their influence through exploration. Strong rulers had established power over unruly nobles. These rulers built large armies and amassed great wealth by collecting taxes.
Europeans had benefited from contacts through trade with China, which had invented the magnetic compass and gunpowder.
From Arabia, Europeans learned how to make better sails. Europeans also developed the moveable rudder, so they could steer larger ships more easily.
These technological improvements in navigation made it possible for Europeans to sail farther than ever before.
Sailors began to use the sun's angle to determine their location, allowing them to judge distances.
These innovations allowed them to sail into the open ocean instead of hugging the coastline.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Check out my sweet hat
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460), later King Manuel sponsored
Vasco da Gama
's first exploration of the Atlantic coast of Africa by Portuguese sailors. He developed a new, lighter ship called a
better suited for distant oceanic exploration.
Many historians believe Prince Henry played a key role in encouraging European exploration and maritime trade with other countries.
Italian city-states had once profited by shipping goods across the Mediterranean to the markets in Asia, but routes were cutoff in the Middle East and trading hub of Constantinople in 1453.
The capitalist economy was just emerging. People were seeing new wealth from investment and trade. Some hoped to increase their profits through exploration.
Marco Polo
's writings about his travels to China encouraged an increase in trade. He described all the marvelous things he had witnessed there. Europeans quickly wanted to drink Chinese tea, own Chinese porcelain, spice their food with East Indian flavors, and wear new Asian materials.
Europeans used spices from the East Indies to preserve their food
Venetian Merchant
Marco Polo
European merchants and rulers were anxious to find a sea route to reach China and the Spice Islands of the East Indies. This would allow them to ship these luxury goods more easily back to Europe.
European missionaries, especially from Spain and Portugal, sought to spread Christianity. Christian missionaries believed they not only had a superior religion, but also a superior culture.
Christopher Columbus
Italian Sea Captain (1451 - 1506)
Believed he could reach China and the Spice Islands by sailing westward
Voyage supported by Queen Isabella of Spain promising gold and glory for Spain
Set sail in 1492
Never reached Asia, landed somewhere in the Bahamas
Thought he was in the East Indies, so he naturally called the peoples "Indians"
Dis Mine
a fine, strong, lustrous fiber produced by silkworms in making cocoons and collected to make thread and fabric
Silk Road
ancient trade route extended from China to the Mediterranean Sea
Chinese invention that made its way to Europe in the 1200s. The compass allowed sailors to determine their direction when they were far from land
Early European maps did not include America, rather three continents - Europe, Asia, and Africa.
merged together as a large land mass, bordered by oceans
The explorers did not know the true size of the oceans
also that a whole other land mass existed
Bartholomeu Dias
1487, sent by Portugal's king to find a route to India from Portugal
Portugal had no Mediterranean Sea port
Dias was sent around the southern tip of Africa
Ran into storms that sent him off course
King named the point "Cape of Good Hope"
hoping that a new route had been found
De Gama sailed out in 1497 with four ships bound for India
He rounded the "Cape of Good Hope" and completed the Eastern sea route in 1498 when he landed in Calicut
Up to this time the two major powers exploring the world were Spain and Portugal. These nations worried that their new territories would be taken by each other, or by others. In order to protect their new empires, these nations looked to the Pope for help
Columbus originally thought the lands he had found were in Asia. Later explorations made it clear that Columbus had not reached Asia at all. He had found part of the globe unknown to Europeans, Asians, and Africans. In the following years, the Spanish explored most of the Caribbean region. In time their voyages led to the establishment of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.
In 1493, the Pope drew a line on the globe cutting the New World in half. This line was known as the
Line of Demarcation
. Any territory discovered on the east side of the line was to be controlled by Portugal, while any lands found on the west side of the line were to be ruled by Spain.

In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed treaty moving the line further west. This treaty was known as the
Treaty of Tordesillas
, and divided the New World between these two powers.
The Columbian Exchange was on of the most significant events in world history. This term identifies the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Europeans learned about new foods such as: corn, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate.

Meanwhile, Europeans introduced sugar, wheat, oranges, grapes, and onions to the Americas.
Without the Columbian Exchange, the Italians might not have gotten tomatoes. No tomatoes, means no tomato sauce. No tomato sauce, means NO PIZZA!
Europeans also introduced many new animals to the Western Hemisphere, including horses, sheep, goats,
Europeans also introduced many new animals to the Western Hemisphere, including horses, sheep, goats, cows, cats, rats, and pigs.
The European encounter with the Americans also spread germs. Europeans brought diseases like smallpox, typhus, cholera, and measles.
Over centuries, Europeans had developed resistance to these diseases, but Native Americans had no such immunity
Estimates range from 2 to 18 million Native Americans died from these diseases all over the New World
An Aztec artist depicts the suffering from disease introduced by the Europeans.
By 1494, news of the "New World" was in print throughout Europe. This greatly stimulated the appetite of European monarchs for overseas exploration.
The establishment of New Spain in the Carribbean, Mexico, Florida and South America further heightened the interest of Spain's chief rivals: France, Holland, and England.
The rulers of these nations sent their own explorers to claim lands in the Americas. Where each nation explored and settled was affected by many factors, including ocean currents, weather patterns, and where rival powers had claims.
Spanish conquistadors like Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizarro used horses and superior weapons, such as cannons and crossbows, to conquer the powerful Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru.
Cortes left Cuba to sail to present day Mexico in 1519 with 508 soldiers, about 100 sailors, 16 horses, and some guns. He had heard of a wealthy land to the west ruled by a King name Moctezuma II.
The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, built in the middle of Lake Texcoco (near present day site of Mexico City).
Cortes saw the empire as a good source for gold and silver and also wanted to convert the Aztec to Christianity.
At first Moctezuma believed Cortes to be a god and welcomed him. Cortes took him prisoner and seized control of Tenochtitlan. Eventually, the capital was destroyed and Moctezuma was killled.

The Aztec had thousands of warriors, however superior weapons, rivals of the Aztec that Cortes had convinced to join his side, and diseases quickened the fall of the Empire
Pizarro heard rumors of the Inca cities in the Andes of South America. The Inca ruled a large territory that stretched along the pacific coast from present day Chile to northern Ecuador.
Pizarro had fewer than 400 men in his army. But the Inca, like the Aztec, had no weapons to match the conquistadors' swords and guns.
Pizarro troops captured the great Inca capital at Cuzco in present day Peru and killed the Incan leaders.
By 1534 Pizarro and his Native American allies had conquered the entire Inca Empire
The Spanish conquerors murdered the ruling classes of Mexico and Peru, and destroyed their temples and palaces. New Spain was ruled by the viceroys of the king.

The Spanish monarchy became enriched by shipments of gold and silver. One fifth of all the gold and silver from the New World went to the king.
The Spanish brought with them a set of customs and traditions from Spain. Spaniards took large tracts of land for mining, ranching, and farming, known as
Although the encomienda system was introduced with the idea of caring and providing for Native Americans, it quickly became highly abusive and destructive system.
Native Americans were used as forced laborers to mine silver and to grow sugar cane or tobacco
Millions of Native Americans died from overwork and new diseases. The Spaniards replaced them by importing enslaved Africans, starting the Atlantic slave trade.
Missionaries came from Spain to convert them to Catholicism. The Spanish used religion to justify their domination over the Native Americans
Native Americans and slaves endured terrible conditions in mines and on plantations and ranches.
Other European rulers were envious of Spain's power in the Americas. They sent their own explorers to the
"New World."
New France was established in Canada along the...
St. Lawrence River
Great Lakes
Mississippi River
New France never became as populous as the Spanish or English colonies. It consisted of a handful of towns and a series of trading outposts
French missionaries came to convert the Native Americans to Christianity.
French explorers found that the region contained valuable fur-bearing animals, especially beavers.
This prompted French colonists to engage in an active fur trade with the Native Americans.
Henry Hudson, an English sea captain, was hired by Dutch merchants looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia

In 1609, Hudson reached New York Harbor. Based on Hudson's explorations, the Dutch claimed control of this region. They set up a successful fur trade with the native peoples of the Hudson River Valley, and called their colony New Netherland.
The Dutch government gave control of the colony to the merchants of the Dutch West India Company. New Netherland also conquered the neighboring Swedish colony of Delaware in 1655.
At first, New Netherland was a company owned and operated business, run by the Dutch West India Company. The intent of the company directors was to make a profit for the investors in the company.
Dutch families settled in present day Albany and New York City (then known as New Amsterdam). New Netherland became active in trading for furs. Beaver skins and other furs were highly valued by Europeans.
On his last voyage, Henry Hudson sailed under the sponsorship of a group of English businessmen. Once he reached Hudson Bay, he spent several months exploring it. After a winter of suffering from extreme conditions, part of Hudson's crew mutinied. The mutineers put Hudson, his son, and seven crew members in a small boat and cast them adrift. Some of the mutineers made it back to England and were put in prison. Hudson, his son, and the others were never heard from again.
The settlement of New Amsterdam, with its fine natural harbor, became a leading center for trade.
The Dutch welcomed people from other countries. They also practiced religious toleration. Walking around in New Amsterdam in the 1660s, a visitor might have seen Irish, British, German or French people talking the streets.
Others might be Native Americans or Africans. The Dutch West India Company introduced enslaved persons to the colony in 1625. Most Africans in New Netherland had been brought from Africa or the West Indies as enslaved persons.
The colonization of America shifted wealth and power away from the Mediterranean region to the countries of Western Europe. Spain was greatly enriched by American gold and silver. Protestant England became engaged in a series of wars against Catholic Spain. England's rulers desired to stake a claim for lands and riches in the New World, so that they could match Spain's wealth. England's colonies were established for political, economic, religious, and social reasons.
The adventurer Sir Walter Raleigh persuaded Queen Elizabeth to found a colony. This first English colony in the "New World," at Roanoke, North Carolina originally consisted of 100 householders.
Founded in 1585, this settlement lasted only ten months and then mysteriously failed. The colony had disappeared without a trace.
None of the colonists could be found. All personal belongings were left in place as if the people had disappeared into thin air.
The only clue found to the fate of the colonists was the word Croatoan, the name of a nearby island, carved into a post. Did colonists try to escape a Native American attack by fleeing to the island?
Although the first two attempts at English colonization were failures, it brought attention to the dangers of creating a new society in the far off distant land.
Jamestown (1607)
The first permanent English colony in the "New World" was established by the Virginia Company for economic reasons.
This private company hoped to profit from good and other resource. 104 English men and boys built a settlement of cabins surrounded by a stockade fence near the James River at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.
These first settlers were men who came in search of gold. What they found in the area was a swamp plagued by mosquitoes that caused malaria. Half the group were artisans, soldiers, and laborers. The other half were "gentlemen" who did not care to work. They quickly used up their supplies, and many later died from a lack of food.
After their leader, Captain John Smith, returned to England in 1609, the colonists at Jamestown endured a second winter of starvation and death. Having failed to plant or store enough grain for their needs, the settlers became desperate for food.
The "Starving Time," the winter of 1609, saw only 60 of the first 214 settlers at Jamestown survive
Despite these intial setbacks, the colony at Jamestown became profitable by growing tobacco for sale in Europe. By 1619, Jamestown was exporting tons of tobacco to England for the new fashion of smoking.
Jamestown's new tobacco economy created a labor shortage. The need for laborers was so great that early settlers attempted to enslave the area's Native Americans. However, these Native Americans were unwilling to be used as forced laborers and often escaped into the surrounding forests.
The first enslaved people from Africa arrived in the colony in 1619, as well as the first women. As the success of tobacco planting spread, using African slaves would grow to become the foundation of the Southern agrarian economy.
Later, the area of colonial settlement spread from Jamestown to other parts of Virginia. The capital of the colony was moved to Williamsburg. Virginia eventually had both rich plantation owners and smaller farmers, and grew to become one of the wealthiest colonies.
In a country without roads, rivers played an important role. The first colonists depended on rivers to ship crops form the farm to the marketplace.
The marshy coastal plain along the Chesapeake Bay (right) contained many navigable streams. Land owners constructed their buildings along these streams, while ocean-going ships sailed up these streams for many miles, stopping to load goods at each plantation.
These geographic condition encouraged the development of independent farms and plantations in Virginia and Maryland. At the same time, land away from the rivers remained largely unsettled. These colonies developed few large towns, since buying and selling often took place at a farmer's dock.
A second English Colony was founded for religious reasons by a group of Protestant Christians known as the Pilgrims (or Separatists).
The Pilgrims
They were unhappy with the policies of the Church of England. In an attempt to escape persecution, the Pilgrims first fled to Holland.
Pilgrims landing in Plymouth
In 1620, a group of Pilgrims sailed to the Americas. They landed at Plymouth in present-day Massachusetts.
At Plymouth, they established the first permanent European settlement in "New England."
They committed themselves to a life based on the Bible. Before going ashore, the Pilgrims pledged themselves to self-government by singing an agreement known as the
Mayflower Compact
. They agreed to form their own government and to obey its laws.
"In the name of God. We who are underwritten, the loyal subjects of King James of Great Britain, France and Ireland, having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor of our country, a voyage to plant the first colony in Virginia, do [agree] and combine ourselves together into a body politic [a community with its own form of government], for our better order and preservation and... to enact and frame just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, and constitutions from time to time, as shall be thought most convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we sign our names at Cape-Cod, 11th of November [1620]"
The Puritans
Another group of English Protestants landed in nearby Massachusetts in 1630. They also came to practice their own religious beliefs without persecution.
They wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. These Puritans planned to establish a more virtuous society, based on what they believed was God's will.
One Puritan writer stated that they would establish a "City upon a hill" - a symbol of goodness and virtuous living for all the world to see.
Unlike the adventurers at Jamestown, the Pilgrims and Puritans sailed to the "New World" as entire families, along with their wives and children.

Eventually, their two settlements merged into the single colony of Massachusetts.
Early Puritans and Pilgrims lived simple, religious lives. Their clothing was usually black or gray. They believed that hard work was the key to getting into Heaven.

Sundays and holidays were strictly observed. Religious leaders played an important role in governing the colony.
Vikings came from Scandinavia
They raided countries throughout Europe and developed large trading networks
In 1000, Leif Erikson sailed from Norway to the North American coast after having been blown off course by a storm
Longship, more stable to sail the rough North Atlantic
What might have happen if the Viking colony had succeed?
How might the establishment of new sea routes help European countries break the monopolies on Asian spices held by merchants?

William Penn founded Pennsylvania for the Quakers, a group of Protestant who opposed war.
Elsewhere, colonists had just taken land from Native Americans, but Penn negotiated peaceful purchases.
"Frame of Government"
Penn gave a written constitution
Provided a human penal code
guaranteed many fundamental freedoms
Religious Tolerance
Lord Baltimore started the colony across the Chesapeake Bay from Virginia, as a haven for England's Catholics.
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