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Standard 3 - Earth Science Curriculum Map (Tyson Grover)

There is not a flow to this you need to dig in and explore the map. I only set up a daily flow for what I am talking about that day.

Tyson Grover

on 13 June 2018

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Transcript of Standard 3 - Earth Science Curriculum Map (Tyson Grover)

Earth Systems
Students will be able to apply scientific processes, communicate scientific ideas effectively, and understand the nature of science.
Standard 3
Students will understand the atmospheric processes that support life and cause weather and climate.
Obj1: Students will use science process and thinking skills
Obj2: Students will manifest scientific attitudes and interests
Obj3: Students will Demonstrate an understanding of Earth Science concepts, Principles, and systems.
Obj4: Students will communicate effectively using Earth Science language and reasoning
Obj5: Students will demonstrate an awareness of the social and historical aspects of earth science.
Obj6: Students will develop an understanding of the nature of science , especially the nature of the principal Earth sciences -- geology, meteorology, oceanography, and planetary astronomy.
When planning monthly, weekly, and daily activities these 6 objectives should be incorporated through all planned activities in some way. They really are the bread and butter of science education.
S3o1: Students will relate how energy from the Sun drives atmospheric processes and how atmospheri currents transport matter and transfter energy.
S3o2: Students will describe elements of weather and the factors that cause them to vary from day to day.
S3o3- Students will examine the natural and human-caused processes that cause Earth's climate to change over intervals of time ranging from decades to millennia.
This is done well by teaming with your language arts department and by incorporating daily writing into your class. It is also vital that students are using technical writing in class to create lab reports that present their data.
Resource: Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/sCocial Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

Umbrellaology - GD (9th Wood)
Psuedoscience Water Witching GD 9th Wood
Lab Write Up Template - GD 9th Grover
Nature of Science/Psuedoscience Module - GD (9th Wood)
NOS Interactive Reading - http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/intro_01
In order to meet this objective it is essential that scientific inquiry is introduced over and over again.

The goal would be to have Students engaged in experimental design activities at least once every two weeks. This is best done by using backwards design and looking at the ideas you are teaching and then asking yourself how could we learn this by experimentation.
s3o1e: Students will
how the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial to life, while ozone in the troposphere is considered an air pollutant.
s3o1d: Students will
how uneven heating of Earth's atmosphere at the equator and polar regions combines with the Corilolis effect create an atmosperic circulation system including, Hadley cells, Trade winds and prevailing westerlies, that moves heat energy around Earth.
s3o1c: Students will conduct an
on how the tilt of Earth's axis causes variations in the intensity and duration of sunlight striking Earth.
s3o1b: Students will
a model that demonstrates how the greenhouse effect contributes to atmospheric energy.
s3o1a: Students will

and contrast the amount of energy coming from the sun that is reflected, absorbed, or scattered by the atmosphere, oceans, and land masses.
s3o2a: Students will
the elements of weather and the instruments used to measure them (e.g. temperature- thermometer; percipitation- rain gauge or doppler radar; humidity- hygrometer; air pressure-barometer; wind-anemometer' cloud coverage-satellite imaging).
s3o2b: Students will
conditions that give rise to severe weather phenomena (e.g. thunderstorms, tornados, hurricanes El Nino/La Nino).
s3o2c: Students will
the difference between a low pressure system and a high pressure system, including the weather associated with them.
s3o2e: Students will
a weather investigation, use an appropriate display of the data and interpret the observations and data.
s3o2d: Students will
cold, warm, occluded, and stationary boundaries (weather fronts) between air masses.
s3o3a: Students will explain differences between weather and climate and the methods used to investigate
s3o3b: Students will
how Earth’s climate has changed over time and describe the natural causes for these changes (e.g., Milankovitch cycles, solar fluctuations, plate tectonics).
s3o3d: Students will
between air pollution and climate change and how these are related to society’s use of fossil fuels.
s3o3e: Students will
the current and potential consequences of climate change (e.g., ocean acidification, sea level rise, desertification, habitat loss) on ecosystems, including human communities.
Links and Resources
Things to change or improve
Science instruction should cultivate and build on students’ curiosity and sense of wonder. Effective science instruction engages students in enjoyable learning experiences. Science instruction should be as thrilling an experience for a student as opening a rock and seeing a fossil, watching the colors change in a chemical reaction, or observing the consistent sequence of color in a rainbow. Science is not just for those who have traditionally succeeded in the subject, and it is not just for those who will choose science-related careers. In a world of rapidly expanding knowledge and technology, all students must gain the skills they will need to understand and function responsibly and successfully in the world. The Core provides skills in a context that enables students to experience the joy of doing science.
The Most Important Goal
Do not move on until the students are capable of performing and experiment and understand the parts of the process
s3o3c: Students will
how human activity influences the carbon cycle and may contribute to climate change.
-The Greenhouse Effect-
LAB DAY - Greenhouse effect variables

: Students will create and perform a experiment comparing the differences in heat retention by different greenhouse gasses

Why is it important to the earths budget and to earth systems to know the answer to the research question listed to the right?
Could this effect humans, cities, or entire countries?
What happens if we keep to much heat and our budget is out of balance?
What happens if we loose to much heat and our budget is out of balance?
Do you think it is possible for materials the atmosphere is composed of to affect its ability to retain heat and keep a constant energy budget?

Main Class Body
General Inquiry Lab procedures
Present the research question
Guide students through lab creation and digital lab write up creation
Identify all safety risks & hazards from lab
Discuss clean up and disposal of materials
Once their lab write up looks like they know what they are going to do let them go at it. [make sure the data they are going to gather addresses the question]
When done have students submit their lab write up



Perform a data round up and graph out data gathered from multiple groups.

Discussion of how data relates to the greenhouse effect and to the Earths Energy Budget
Resesarch Questions for Today
What are some possible variables to test?
Type of gas present
High concentration vs low concentration
Location heat is radiated from
Person 2
create a google doc & share it to your team
and to me:

Person 4
copy/paste the lab write up template in
Person 1
name the file:

Greenhouse effect lab [period.table]
Example: Greenhouse effect lab 1.7
You have 10 minutes to prepare for your presentation of your lab
Be sure to pay close attention to
Public speaking
Experimental process
Experimental errors
Analysis of your data
Your Conclusion
Basic lab materials list:
Before you leave you need to:
Come up with (a):
1. question
2. hypothesis
3. procedures

You experiment will be done using the materials from the list. If you think you want anything else make the request today.
Go to this website to get the Greenhouse Effect simulator for use during class
Journals are due today please submit yours to CANVAS and Start a new science journal called

[Atmosphere Science Journal]
You created this yesterday and need to use it today to establish your experimental path.
Your experiment you create needs to address your question
This was done earlier in the year at the end of the standard 1 unit.
Argumentative Paper on Global Warming [PRO or CON]
"Is the current global warming trend due to human actions or is it a natural occurring event that we have little control over?"
For this task you are to complete an argumentative essay discussing your point of view on the question above. Do you think it is us causing the warming trend or is it a natural process? Your essay needs to meet the following procedural guidelines for (5pts).
Double spaced
Times New Roman font
12pt font
1in margins all around

Your essay also needs to follow the following content and structural guidelines
Proper spelling & punctuation (2pts)
Correct grammar [full sentences that make sense] (3pts)
Introduction paragraph where you introduce your claim (3pts)
Supporting paragraphs discussing your evidence (3pts)
A strong warrant where you explain how the evidence supports your claim (5pts)
A conclusion paragraph (3pts)
At least 5 references (2pts)
Set up time for research in the library and a training on research methods in the library
Week Long research Project on Global Warming
-Global Air Movement-
Day #1: Uneven heating of Eath's Surface & the Formation of Wind


High & Low Pressure in the Atmosphere
The Formation of Wind

You will need a barometer, tape, two liter bottle, and computer


"What is in the air?"
- 1 min think/write
Call on student to read what they wrote
Show diagram of what makes up the air - put in journals
Explain that when you feel air on your skin you are feeling the atoms we just talked about hitting you.
"But ...why are the atoms moving in the first place?"
"What is pressure?" - 1 min think/write
Call on student to read what they wrote
Explain what air pressure is and how we measure it using barometer diagram

Main Class Body

Explain that nature always wants to even itself out (example - temperature)
"If you have a high pressure and low pressure area will this cause motion and how will it move?"
-1 min think/write
Call on student to read what they wrote
Show the students the pressure in the building using the doc camera & barometer
Look up the pressure outside and display on the screen (inside should have LOWER pressure)
Have students create a - Prediction/observation/outcome table and fill it out for what they think will happen when we go to the doors and drop saw dust as we open it. (will it come in or go out)(or just Drop)
"Explain what moved the saw dust and explain why in terms of air pressure?"
- 2 min think/write
Discuss wind with the class.
Explain that you have a two liter full of water with two holes in the side. One hole is higher than the other
Have students create a - Prediction/observation/outcome table and fill it out for what they think will happen when the holes are opened.
What will happen to the water and which hole will shoot the water farther or will they be the same.
Perform the demo and have students finish their chart.
Relate to the atmosphere and air pressure - The scale of the pressure differences can change the speed and force of the object being moved
Discuss how strong gradients of pressure can cause a strong movements of air
Show the pressure map and describe the isobar trends
"which location on the map would have the strongest winds and why"
- 2 min think/write
Discuss student responses as a class.

Writing task - Exit Ticket: Explain the formation of wind in terms of pressure - 2 paragraphs
Day #3: Cyclones/Anticyclones

: Students will relate the Coriolis Effect and pressure to meso scale wind patterns.

: Review the Coriolis Effect and pressure.
Discussion: Which direction do objects "deflect"? Why? How does this relate to wind? Refer to the map isobar map, which way is the wind blowing? Why? Where is it the fastest?

Main Class Body
: This lesson can be done as an I do, we do, you do.

Part #1
Draw a similar map to the one on the top left on the board. Explain - In the northern hemisphere deflection occurs to the right. You have to imagine that the wind is at your back, it might help to imagine that you are driving WITH the wind. As the wind crosses each isobar going from HIGH to LOW pressure it deflects a little to the right.
Demo - Draw on the board arrows crossing the isobars at regular intervals, angled to the right.
Show them the rotation. Which way does the high pressure rotate? The low? Define Cyclone and Anticyclone
Describe the pattern the wind makes at the low pressure center and a the high pressure center. Infer - if air is leaving the high, what is replacing it? When it all arrives at the low, where does it go?
(Think 3 dimentionally)

Part #2
Depending on time and hpw much work you want the studnets to do you can do this next part 2 different ways:

Short version:
Print the station data pressure map and draw the contour lines in yourself. Make copies and have the students draw in the highs, lows, and arrows indicatin wind direction

Long version:
Print blank maps for the students and teach them how to draw contour lines. This is an easy map to learn how and is pretty straight forward. Teaching them how is a good idea if you plan on later doing it with temperature or other variables.
Have students draw in the highs, lows, and arrows indicatin wind direction

Compare and Contrast the differences between cyclones and anticyclones
. (Wind direction, rotation, vertical movement)
The 6 main properties of weather

Students will
the elements of weather and the instruments used to measure them (e.g. temperature- thermometer; percipitation- rain gauge or doppler radar; humidity- hygrometer; air pressure-barometer; wind-anemometer' cloud coverage-satellite imaging)


-Have students summarize what the weather has been like for the week based off of the observations they made in the above task
-Have students read theirs
-Discuss the difference between qualitative and quantitative data
"What are some variables we could test to take our qualitative data into quantitative data."
-Have groups make a list of variables
-Share lists and make a class list on the board.
-Fill in any the class is missing from the following
Air Pressure
Dew Point

Main Class Body
-Have students read pages 289, 290, 293, 294, 295 with the focus of learning what the properties are, how we measure them, and what units it is reported in.
-Students need to create a chart that organizes the information.
-Go through and describe the 6 different weather properties
-Also show pictures of devices we use to measure them and the units their measurements are in
Students should be creating adding to their chart

Exit ticket: what are the 6 main properties of weather and how are they measured (2 paragraphs)

What is Climate and how do we measure past climates

Students will differentiate between weather and climate.
Students will list factors that influence climate.
Students will describe the methods of studying paleoclimates.


: Have the students do the list activity in their journals to see what they know. Show the video clip and allow them to correct any answers they feel they need to.

Main Class Body
Ask: "What factors are going to affect the climate?" List answers on board.
LAWMOPS - Fill in any students didn't get.
Wind patterns

PART 2 - How do we get data we study past climates? (paleoclimatology)
There is a large amount of infomration and data regarding paleoclimatology. Adjust for time as you see fit. The evidences are (Cover those in
if short on time):

Isotopic Geochemical Studies
: The study of rock isotopic ratios,
ice core bubbles
, deep sea sediments, etc.

: the study of tree rings

Pollen Distribution: the study of plant types and prevalence from pollen found in sediments, ice, rocks, caves, etc.

Lake Varves
: (like dendochronology, but with lake sediments - a varve is an annual layer of mud in the sediment)

Coral Bed Rings

Fossils: Studies of geological settings, etc.

Historical documents, paintings, evidence of civilizations, etc.

Cyclotherms, trangression/regression sequences.

Inquiry skills lab analysis of climagraph data

Students will analyze climate data from around the globe and create correlations between different variables of climate.
Students will practice on their graph creation and analysis skills
Students will practice proper public speaking skills

: Update CANVAS with the assignment and a link to the template

Review of climate and ways we can measure it
Review of Climagraphs

Main Class Body
This is a inquiry skills lesson - The students use the document linked to over on the side in order to gather global climate data and analyize different variables against each other
Model how to gather the data
Students work on the assignment
Model how to graph a variable correlation
Students create graphs
Students present findings
While presentations are going on students need to be gathering the data in a prediction/reasons/outcome table

Students write a summary of findings and outcomes
1.How the carbon cycle works and how humans effect it
2.Difference between greenhouse gases and pollution

Students will Describe how human activity influences the carbon cycle and may contribute to climate change.

Have paper for students to draw on and drawing materials
Have writing task added to CANVAS as a discussion

Review of natural causes of climate change in the past by looking at graphs and completing the writing task.

Main Class Body
Introduce the carbon cycle and define what it is - students define in journal
Compare it to the water cycle for familiarity
Explain the difference between a carbon transfer process and a carbon sink or storage zone
Explain that carbon can be in the air in the form of CO2 or it can be stored in various other forms
Have students create a 4-squared graphic organizer like the one to the right.
Going from box to box have the students -
Discuss as a table and brainstorm ideas
Call on students to respond and share one they came up with - dont let them off easy
The human input section has a short video to go with it.
Once you have filled out and discussed all 4 boxes give the students a 3 minute break.
When they return model for them how to take their graphic organizer and turn it in to a CARBON CYCLE diagram that explains how all four boxes work together.
Then have the students create their own (20min)
Share a few of the cycle diagrams
Take a [3 MIN] break
Discuss the ways human affect the carbon cycle focus on deforestation and fossil fuel burning since they hurt natures ability to balance itself
Use graphs to show trends in human inpacts to the carbon cycle

Did analyzing the ways humans affect the carbon cycle change the way you feel about climate change and what is causing it?
Tell students to use the rest of the class to work on editing and changing their essays.
Lesson #1
Lesson #2
Document Link
Climate Map
Milankovitch Cycle Animations:
How climate has changed over the history of the Earth.

Students will observe paleoclimate patterns and make predictions based on past data.
Students will analyze how Milankovich Cycles, solar fluctuations and plate tectonics effect the Earth's climate.

: Show the paleoclimate graph to the studnents. Have them make observations, then inferences or predictions about the future based on past trends. List these on the board.

Main Class Body
Have students open up their Climate Change argumentative essay they wrote the week before. Breifly discuss the main ideas about anthropological vs. natural climate factors.
Have the students who wrote an essay about natural climate cycles share the ideas and evidences. (Try to coax all of the topics out of them).
As students bring up their evidences to the class list them on the board or have the student do it.
As they come up, discuss each topic using the resources provided. Students should be taking notes on the following topics:
Milakovitch Cycles - Eccentricity, Axial Tilt, Precession
Volcanic Outgassing
Sunspot activity - The number of sunspots increases the amount of solar radiation. Not only does this heat the atmosphere and ocean more, it inhibits condensation to form clouds which allows for mroe insolation.
Also discuss why ocean temp is important to greenhouse gas concentration.

Have the students reflect in their journals - Did learning about the natural cycles that effect climate change how you would have written your paper? Why or why not?

1. Winter here tends to be wet and cool.

2. The temperature is currently 3ºC.

3. Our warmest month is August.

4. We average 200 inches of snow each winter.

5. There are only cirrus clouds in the sky today.
6. There is a hurricane affecting the Gulf Coast.

7. The nighttime low is expected to be -5ºC.

8. The fog is making driving difficult.

9. The evenings are generally mild.

10. I will need a warm jacket for the winter.

11. I need to wear a sweater and long pants today.

12. The leaves are turning colors and falling off of the trees because the days and night are cooler.
Have them perform the research and write the paper with little prior knowledge [
just their own reseach in library
After going through the unit have them take their original essay and rewrite it based off of what they now know.
Start Here for Climate Unit.
1. Latitude -vs- Seasons
2. Coastal/Continental -vs- Seasons
3. Coastal/Continental -vs- Temp Trend
4. Temperature Trend -vs- Precipitation Pattern
5. Temperature Trend -vs- Altitude
6. Precipitation Pattern -vs- Mountains
7. Latitude -vs- Temperature Trend
Log into CANVAS, get your science journal ready, and pull out the paper from yesterday.
Do this first
Then the lab
Then this
Inference made from graph
Materials were gathered from: http://ossfoundation.us/projects/environment/global-warming/human-caused
This is a graph of data from computer models showing how things would be with out anthropogenic effect and with. it also includes the observed data.
This graph shows the exponential growth of the use of fossil fuels over the last century
This graph shows the increase in CO2 beleived to be caused by humans compared to the trend of the last 650,000yrs
Writing Task:
Explain the three natural processes that affect the earth's global temperature?
Part #2
Explain how humans may be affecting earths global temperature.
Based off the data shown in class do you think we are going to keep heating up or do you think we are going to start cooling off. Explain the reasoning behind your answer.
Human inputs to the Carbon Cycle
Human outputs to the carbon cycle
Taking carbon out of air
Natural inputs to the Carbon Cycle
Natural outputs to the carbon cycle
Taking carbon out of air
Buring trees
burning fossil fuels
CO2 sequestration
air filters on factories
Animals breathing
Dissolving in oceans
Storing in rocks
Storing in body structures
Video to show inputs:
Video for Review and round up of data for Climate change
Release of dissolved CO2 from oceans
Pull up your CLIMATE DATA file and finish your data collection.
Once you are done with data collection I will give you the correlation you are tasked to graph out.
Carbon Cycle Interactive Thinger

Climate Types Reading Guide Lesson - Link
For the lesson show a short introduction video explaining the koppen classification, macroclimates, and microclimates then lead in to the reading guide.
Make sure the students read the pages before you give out the sheet
Fit this lesson in where it works for you.
Map for Analysis During Reading Guide
Video of Strong Winds
-- The Coriolis Effect --

: Students will analyze how the coriolis effect affects the atmosphere and global circulation.

: You will need to upload the canvas assignment or have the investigation printed out for them. You will also need spin tables for showing the apparent change in motion.
All of the instructions for this lab are in the following google doc
Review of the formation of wind using pictures from last lesson.
If the class did not get to the writing task from the last lesson have them do it today either on paper or as a discussion in CANVAS
- Writing task -

Explain what affects wind speed and direction
Final Edits
1...Claim Statement in introduction
2...5 Strong lines of evidence
3...Explains how each evidence supports their claim
4...Has in-text citations for evidence
5...Conclusion restates claim and closes argument
6...Has a work cited page - with all references cited
7...Proper spelling
8...Paragraphs read well and make sense
The test for this unit is in a Google doc linked below
Below are the graphs needed for the test
GRAPh #1
GRAPh #2
GRAPh #3
Sit where you want for today
Tell me what wind is, how it moves, and what causes it to move?
Writing Task
Graph #6
Science Skills Lab
The following is a short optional assignment you can do to practice science skills. Relates to altitude and air pressure
Altitude and Air Pressure
Science Skills #1 (Altitude & Air Pressure)

Like density, the pressure of the air decreases with altitude. There is less air pressing down from above the higher up you go. Look at the bottle in Figure below. It was drained by a hiker at the top of a mountain. Then the hiker screwed the cap on the bottle and carried it down to sea level. At the lower altitude, air pressure crushed it.

1...Can you explain why?


2. Create a graph that shows how air pressure changes with altitude. Use the data in Table below as a guide.
Air Pressure
Altitude (m)
Altitude (ft)

3. Explain how and why the density of air changes with altitude.

4. Review Figure above and its caption. What would the bottle look like if the hiker hadn't screwed on the cap before returning to sea level? Explain your answer.
Before starting the weather unit have the students gather 4 days worth of pure observations of the atmosphere. They should be making observations of what they see, what they feel, and any direction of movement they see. in the atmosphere. Have them create a graphic organizer to keep all their information in. Be sure to have them compare day to day information.

There is an example off to the side
What I feel
What I see
Any movement?
Day #1

Day #2

Day #3

Day #4

Day #5
Science Skills Lesson
Temperature - vs - Height
Introduce the task of graphing temperature -vs- height. Go over the data with them and discuss the following items

What are the units
what type of graph would this data need
What data goes in the A column (x-axis)
What data does in the B column (y-axis)

Graph out data
Have students make observations of the graph (1-2min)
Have students seperate the graph into zones
Discuss how they seperated the graph
Go over the layers of the Atmosphere names and properties
Have them Annotate their graphs
Once the graphs are created
taken from: http://www.geosociety.org/educate/LessonPlans/Layers_of_Atmosphere.pdf
-- Assignment is in CANVAS --
Once the writing task is done start working on the investigation - you will need to do some on the fly drawing together of the information at the end of the lab
- Weather Properties Experiments -
Weather front types and associated weather

: Students will relate air mass interaction with weather fronts, patterns, precipitation, pressure, and cloud type.

: Students will use a simulator located on the link at the above right to view and interpret weather fronts.

: Review air masses from the previous day with students. Discuss the mechanics of lifting. The 3 types are thermal, orographic and frontal. Review what lifting does and why it's important.

Main Class Body
Have the studnets run the interactive model on their computers. As they view the models they should write, as decriptivly as possible, what is happening with each front type. They should descibe temperature, movement, cloud formation and type, and attempt to infer what air masses may be interacting. After they have written a description of each they are to share their descriptoins with others at their table and add and modify their own descriptions any place they are lacking.

Have a student come up and draw a simple 2D model of the front types on the board. Discuss with the class the different properties, allowing the students to lead the discussion and the teacher should be clarifying misconceptions and asking necessary questions. Review all of the related concepts leading up to frontal properties.

: Using a weather map with fronts indicated, Have the studnets write an exit ticket inferring what air masses are causing the fronts and which way the fronts are moving.
Air masses (locations, movement, properties, & names)

: Students will be able to identify air masses based on their locations and properties.


Large, relatively homogenous body of air that acquired its characteristics of temperature and moisture from the ground surface in a so-called source region.
(See platypus with an oven mitt diving into fire for the source region for air masses of North America)

(1) temperature & (2) moisture content define an air mass and control its density.

• warm air masses are termed TROPICAL
• cold air masses ➔ POLAR
• extremely cold ➔ ARCTIC

• dry air masses are termed CONTINENTAL
• moist air masses ➔ MARITIME

Air Mass Types:
•Arctic (cA): very cold, dry, stable air – associated with record low temperatures

• continental polar (cP): cold, dry, stable air in winter;
cool, moist.

maritime polar (mP): cool, humid, conditionally unstable air
• continental tropical (cT): warm-hot, dry, unstable air in summer
• maritime tropical (mT): warm, very humid air (stable or unstable)

: Review atmospheric convection cells with the students. What latitude are they at? Are they closer to a high or a low? How does the pressure effect their climate? Weather? Look at diagram and discuss. Emphasize lifting as a mechaism to cool air and cause condensation.

Main Class Body
Going from the cross section fo the convection cell look at a satellite view of the US. Where is convergence (and the low pressure) taking place?
Where is the air coming from? What would you expect that air to be like? Explain your answers in your journal.
Responses should identify air mass temperature and moisture content.

Have the students take notes on the information given in the prep section of the lesson. Have them put together all the possible combinations based on the temperture and moisture types.

Draw a map on the board with air masses included. Have the students infer the types of air masses of North America using their notes.

Exit ticket - Have the students predict what would happen in a polar air mass collides with a tropical one in terms of weather, wind and vertical motion of the wind.
Start by working on your Science Skills Assignment
Once you have it done submit it to CANVAS
Day #4: Global Air Circulation

: Students will associate pressure and climate patterns with macro scale convection cells

: Review convection. Have the studnets define it and give an example in their journals.

Main Class Body
: Show: map of the Earth with latitude.
Ask: Where does a fluid (like air) go when heated? What direction does cold air go? Where would you expect these types of air movement to happen on the Earth?
Show: Simple air circulation map. (The reason we have a 3 cell system instead of one like this diagram is complex, not well understood and has been debated for centuries. The answer is: something something, the Earth is spinning.)

Reveiw pressure and which direction highs and lows cause air to travel. Hand out a copy of the blank convection cell map. Have students draw arrows indicating vertical motion of ait at high and low pressures. They should be able to infer the movement and direction of the cells

Explain how convection cells affect climate at different latitudes.
Explain the circulation of air from the equator to the poles and how that affects macro climates around the planet
Glass cup with cold water in it or metal water bottle with cold water in it
Two liter bottle
Boiling water (or just hot) - need steam
Intro: Review of rising air & short description of what causes a cloud to form
Hot air rising
Air cooling and expanding - less pressure
[WATER in GLASS] Ask the class how the water got on the outside of the glass - 1 min write
Share thoughts - call on people
Relate to rising air
What should happen if the pressure decreases and so does the temperature?
Make a cloud in a 2 liter and explain the peices needed to get a cloud - have students write them down - journal [
water vapor & condensation nuclei
s the cloud in a bottle around
Now that we know clouds are liquid water lets understand how much water is floating above our heads in terms of these...
Discuss the different types using the below charts
Students should create a table/chart of types and properties in their journals
Cloud Quiz
Add link to modules:
Either go out side and identify real clouds or take the clouds quiz linked below
100 elephants
200,000 Elephants
40,000,000 Elephants
Reading Weather Maps
& Weather Map Inquiry Assignment
~5 tons
Nimbus means Raining
Types of Weather Maps
International Time
Severe Weather
Stratus (meaning "stretched out") Made up of low layers that usually cover the whole sky. When rain falls from them, they are called nimbostratus clouds.
Cloud Types
As a warm front moves in it makes a series of clouds in a certain order.
Very high, thin cirrus clouds slowly turn to very low, thick stratus
Brings rain or snow steadily over several hours to days
Cloud Progression
When a warm air mass moves into a colder, denser air mass.
Warm Front
Vultures Riding an Updraft
A funnel of warm rising air.

Created by convectional heating.
Coriolis Effect
Air Movements
Huge volumes of air that can cover entire continents or oceans
Each air mass has a different temperature and pressure
Air masses move creating wind and weather
Air Mass
Created by convectional heating and cold fronts
A funnel shaped cloud that extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud.
Called a tornado only once it hits the ground.
Winds inside travel at up to 800km per hour in counterclockwise direction.
Lightning strike
Lightning on L.Michigan
When the (-) and (+) touch, they create a conductive path to the ground.
The other (-) rush down this path = lightning
Lightning Formation
The ground has lost electrons, giving it a positive (+) charge

The (-) from the cloud base is “pulled” to the (+)
Lightning Formation
A discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder
Travel at speeds of 140,000 mph,
Can reach temperatures of 30,000 °C (54,000 °F)
Lightning can also occur within the ash clouds from volcanic eruptions, forest fires

Lightning may be associated with Thunder storms

Hits Earth 100 times per second

Over 200 people in the US die each year from lightning.
Thunderstorms (con’t)
The droplets of water grow larger until they are so big that they fall as rain.

Cold Fronts

Begins with humid air rising, cooling, and condensing into a single cumulus cloud.
Cloud builds as they are “fueled” by warm, moist air from below.
cumulonimbus Large, gray, pillars. These clouds often produce lightning and thunder. Nimbus always tells us that a cloud brings rain.
Cumulus (meaning "heap") are the large clouds that sometimes look like huge puffs of cotton.
Cirrus (meaning "curl") clouds are very high, wispy clouds made of ice.
Near the top of the troposphere where it is always cold
Clouds are indicators of weather

For clouds to form, air must be lifted

Three types of lifting cause clouds.
Warm Front
Warm Front
Warm Front
Warm Front
Warm front
When a cold air mass moves into a warm air mass.
Cold Front

Two types of frontal lifting
A) Cold front
B) Warm front
Frontal Lifting
Atmospheric Lifting Type #2
Rain Shadow; Big Hatchet Mt, New Mexico. Notice how dry the land is
Rain shadow- orographic lifting
Atmospheric Lifting Type #2
This is when you get lots rain on one side of a mountain and little to no rain on the other do to orographic lifing
Rain Shadow
Orographic Lifting
An air mass is pushed upward over an obstacle, such as a mountain range.
The air mass will lose moisture in the form of clouds, rain, or snow
As the air descends the mountain its pressure increases
The increased air pressure heats the air causing warm dry winds
Atmospheric Lifting Type #2
Convectional lifting often creates cumulus clouds
Convectional Lifting
Convectional Lifting

Convectional Lifting

Earth’s surface is heated by the sun, which heats the air mass above it. The heated air will then rise.
Lifting Type #1

Atmospheric lifting is when air moves vertically
There are three kinds:
Convectional Lifting
Orographic Lifting
Frontal Lifting
Atmospheric Lifting
Air is heated by the sun creating differences in air pressure.
They move in circles because they are deflected by the rotation of the earth.
Works very similarly to what happens with the oceans.
Air and Coriolis Effect
Wind is caused by differences in pressure.
Air is accelerated from higher to lower pressure.
Meaning air moves from high pressure to low pressure trying to equal out.
Warm air masses are lower in pressure

Cold air masses are higher in pressure
Air Masses
Weather for smart masses
Air Masses and Weather
Caused by a warm, vertical wind interacting with an existing storm and causing the storm to turn inward and spiral.
Wind speeds of up to 300km per hour.
Hurricanes grow as more moist air rises into it.
Severe winds rotate around a calm, low pressure zone in the middle, (the eye)
Lightning on L.Superior
Strong updrafts cause molecules to bump together and their charges to separate
Lightning Formation
Cumulonimbus clouds: L Superior
Cirrostratus on Lake Superior
The weather during a WARM FRONT starts about 24-48 hours before the rain begins
Warm Front

Warm air rides up and over the colder air
Warm Front

Weather changes quickly

Typically brings sudden, heavy rains and storms
Cold Front
Frontal Lift
This is when two air masses of different temperature meet.
One air mass (warm) is pushed upward by the other (cold).
Atmospheric Lifting Type #3
Altostratus clouds: Lake Superior
Warm air is quickly pushed upward, cooling, condensing moisture into clouds
Cold Front:
Slideshow covering ALL meteorology topics. Good for review or cannabalism.
Student's will go through a simple level of experiments and then throuhg a more difficult data analysis usinf WOLFRAM ALFA. For both levels they will create full lab write ups and perform presentations.
Level 1 - Experiments for students to choose from

After completing the following experiment create your own experiment based off the the priciples demonstrated.

From the experiment change the independent and dependent variables to answer a question. Make a full lab write up showing your findings and how it RELATES TO WEATHER

Paper cup, Water, Tongs, Bunsen Burner, Safety glasses

Procedure: Fill the cup up half full with water. Using the tongs hold the cup two to three inches above the flame. What happens? Why?
-AIR PRESSURE vs Weight-

Is air pressure strong enough to lift heavy objects?

Wrap the opening of a plastic bag snugly around the end of a straw. Put the bag on a table with the straw hanging off the edge. Put a stack of heavy books on top of the bag. Blow air from your lungs into the bag. If air pressure has strength, it will lift the books. If air pressure does not have strength, the books will stay flat on the table.
2...Hypothesis: M
ake a hypothesis of what do you think will happen to the books when you blow air into the bag? - How many books can your lungs air pressure hold up?

3...Conduct the experiment.

4...Draw a picture of what you observed.

5...Outcome and Conclusions: [What happened? & Why?]

6...You need to complete a full lab write up for this task - RELATE it to WEATHER
LS: Plastic Bags, Tape, & Straws

This is a really basic idea but I want you to identify two variables one you can change and one you can monitor what happens. (independent/dependent). You need to complete a full lab write up for this task.

The following site will teach you how to create lightning in the classroom. From here you need to change variables and test, analyze, and make conclusions based on your data.

Site: http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/lightningact.html

You need to complete a full lab write up for this task - RELATE it to WEATHER

MATERIALS: Styrofoam plate, thumb tack, pencil with a new eraser, aluminum pie pan, small piece of wool fabric.

What affects the amount of condensation that takes place over time. How can you measure the amount of condensation? This is what I want you to think about for this investigation.

The following site will tell you how to control the creation of condensation but the way to measure it is totally in your hands. Once you are good at inducing condensation you will need to change and control a variable and record how the amount of condensation changes.

Site: http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/tornact5.html

You need to complete a full lab write up for this task - RELATE it to WEATHER
Differences from year to year

Use the following site


Look for and plot out trends. You will be looking at time (yrs) and one of the following variables.
Temp High
Temp Low
Snow Fall

Mr. Grover or Mr. Wood will help you navigate the data when you are ready

You need to complete a full lab write up for this task and RELATE it to WEATHER
Level 2 - Variables for students to choose from
You will use the following site http://www.wolframalpha.com/ to perform an investigation between any of the following variables as long as you think there may be a correlation between them. You will perform an entire lab write up for this investigation.
Wind Speed
Wind Direction
Cloud cover
Air Pressure
Daily Historic Temp.
Averages compared to other places
Historical data compared to today.
Natural Disasters
El Nino/La Nina
Weather Test (MAPS) -
Discuss the topic of global time with the students and have them take notes. Tell them there is a short 4 question quiz at the end.
Use the diagram to solidify the time zone idea and how to tell the time in different places.
GMT is 11:00 am, what time is it in New York City
Quiz - it is 3:00pm on the prime meridian

1.What time is it here?
2.What time is it in japan?
3.What time is it in TEXAS?
4.Three hours from now what time will it be in Saudia Arabia
General station model map (all properties)
Wind map (Wind)
Temperature map (Temperature/Air masses)
Pressure Maps (Air Pressure)
Doppler Radar (Precipitation)
Visible light satellite (Cloud Cover)
Infrared satellite (Density of Storm Clouds)
Current Conditions (highs, lows, current important weather)
Review of Map Types
Terms you might see
-Temperature line on a weather map

- PRESSURE line on a weather map
Make sure you have notes on the following information in your journal and that you know how to locate each of the map types. If you are not confident about this then watch the video again.
Flipped Path
NY is 1:00 pm, because it is 2 time zones ahead of us. So you go 2 hours forward
Try this practice quiz you will be given one similar tomorrow in class
1. 8:00 am
2. Midnight
3. 9:00 am
4. 9:00 pm
Today you will be looking into time zones. You will follow the following steps
Watch video about time zones
Try example
Try sample quiz to prepare for real quiz tomorrow
Give the real quiz the next day in class.
Pick any city you want.
Today you will be looking into weather maps. You will follow the following steps
Watch video about different weather maps
Take cornel style notes on video to be handed in.
Find all of the different weather maps on the site linked to later
Concepts & Skills to master by the end of this lesson
How to read a station model
How to find different weather maps (all 6 properties)
What the different maps are used for measuring
How to compare two maps of similar time frames (2nd Video)
Assignment Done in Class
You are going to use the map on the next slide to complete the following analysis steps
Completed KEY
Draw in ISOBARS & label High/Low pressure centers
Draw in wind direction
Color code temperature using ISOTHERMS
Label all major air masses
Draw in locations of weather fronts
Describe the current weather at locations [
A - B - C
Predict the weather of locations [
D - E - F
Summary of overall weather for United States
Watch the video and take Cornell Style notes during the video to hand tomorrow
Severe Weather Stuff




Main Class Body

We are running behind schedule in 2013 so we are going to keep the severe weather section really short.
You are all tasked to perform an inquiry having to do with the properties of the atmosphere we plot out on weather maps on a daily basis. I want you to use resources such as satellite monitoring (visible, infrared, and water vapor), Doppler radar, isotherm maps, and isobar maps of the countries you are following in geography and also over the United States. I will assign the topics and then you will be tasked to gather data using the tools listed above to address your topic. Remember the data you gather needs to be reproducible so it has to be consistent from multiple sources. Here is a link to the site you will be using to gather your data.


Once you have gone to the site and have played around with it a bit so that you understand how to look for connections between variables you need to start researching your topic. You need to gather as much evidence/data as you can about the topic you are working on. This data needs to be supported by pictures from the website that you snip-it off of the screen. I will go over how to do this in class. Use the clips below to see how to snip it and how to go about gathering data about your topic.
The Data that we gather as a class is going to be shared with everyone else in mini presentations and collaboratively by creating videos where you film your screen while talking to it like a weather man/woman. If this does not work with your PC then you will hook up to a projector or a TV in the school to do your video presentation like a weather man/woman.

I will assign you two of the topics to look for correlations between.
Low pressure and surface weather -
tables1 & 6
High pressure and surface weather -
tables 1 & 6
Cold fronts and surface weather -
tables 2 & 7
Warm fronts and surface weather -
tables 2 & 7
Stationary fronts and surface weather -
tables 3 & 8
Air masses of common temperature -
tables 3 - 8
Low pressure and wind speed/direction -
tables 4 & 9
High pressure and wind speed/direction -
tables 4 & 9
Low pressure and relation to front positions -
table 5
High pressure and relation to front positions -
table 5
Weather Map inquiry
- It is wrote as if the student was going though it. You will need to use your teacher skills to flesh out the class time procedures
If done in class the teacher can follow the following lesson from DISCOVERY:
Used in class
Quiz - it is 3:00pm in Sunny New York

1.In 4 hours what time will it be here?
2.What time is it in japan?
3.What time is it in TEXAS?
4.Three hours from now what time will it be in Saudia Arabia
Predict what would happen in a polar air mass collides with a tropical one in terms of weather, wind and vertical motion of the wind.
The in class procedures for this task will vary by teacher. The main idea is to have them create a fleshed out surface analysis map and to draw inferences from it about local weather conditions. You will need to make sure and model how to do the different steps for your students using a camera of some kind.







Amazing time lapse from space: It shows how thin the atmosphere is really well.
Greenhouse Gasses
Interactive for Class
The big 3 - GREENHOUSE gasses
Carbon Dioxide
Water Vapor
What is the Atmosphere?
It is a thin and I mean thin layer of molecules gravitational bound to the earth's surface
The atmosphere is composed of gases and liquids
Lets take a look at what happens in our atmosphere around the world
1.Create a new science journal
-Atmosphere Journal-
2. Hand in your cornel notes
Intervention students do not forget to login on the computer
Global wind map
HAND IN ON PAPER TO BIN - Due in 10 min.
Have your science journal out and ready to go
Link to Coriolis Simulation
Hand in your CORNEL notes
Hand in Global Air Circulation assignment if it is done (due tomorrow)
Mr. Grover will call role
Go get weather data
Working on Science Skills #2 Assignment
Agenda for the Day
Start working on your
Science Skills #2 Assignment
If you have not handed in your global air circulation assignment HAND IT IN

Large, relatively homogenous body of air that acquired its characteristics of temperature and moisture from the ground surface in a so-called source region.
(See platypus with an oven mitt diving into fire for the source region for air masses of North America)
(1) temperature
(2) moisture content define an air mass and control its density.
• warm air masses are termed TROPICAL
• cold air masses ➔ POLAR
• extremely cold ➔ ARCTIC

• dry air masses are termed CONTINENTAL
• moist air masses ➔ MARITIME
Air Mass Types:

Arctic (cA)
: very cold, dry, stable air – associated with record low temperatures

continental polar (cP)
: cold, dry, stable air in winter;
cool, moist

maritime polar (mP):
cool, humid, conditionally unstable air

continental tropical (cT)
: warm-hot, dry, unstable air in summer

maritime tropical (mT)
: warm, very humid air (stable or unstable)



Make sure you login in
Today's Intervention is about...
How can we identify air masses on our surface analysis map?
You are going to write a group essay IN CLASS. Each student in the group is responsible for completing their own work. All students are responsible for editing the paper and proof reading.
Beginning of Class To Do List
Person #1
Set up google doc and share to team
Checks formatting against the requirements
Introduction and conclusion paragraphs
Assisting in research
Send all references used to person #4
Assist in group review of document
Person #3
Paragraph #4 and #5
Responsible for 2 valid arguments
Performs research
Send all references used to person #4
Assist in group review of document
Person #2
Paragraph #2 and #3
Responsible for 2 valid arguments
Performs research
Send all references used to person #4
Assist in group review of document
Person #4
Paragraph # 6 and references section
All references must be listed in APA format with hanging indents
Assisting in research
Assist in group review of document
1.Sit with your essay group

2.Get your document pulled up

3. 20 minutes for writing

4. 30 minutes for editing

Full transcript