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Black Holes

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by

Meric Bissell

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Black Holes

Intro to Black Holes
Object of extreme density
Overwhelms all forces in the universe
Invisible place in space where gravity is super strong
Cannot be seen by telescope
Obey all laws of physics and gravity
Formation of Black Hole
Born when an object is unable to withstand the force of its own gravity
Birth of Stellar-mass black holes
Form when a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel
Supernova Explosion
Birth of Supermassive Black Holes
Several Theories
Single stellar-mass black hole grows by consuming stars and gas
Growth of black hole through merging with other black holes
Scientists are using computer simulation to investigate

There are no Black Holes
Stephen Hawking wants to change everything we know about black holes
Hawkings Paper in the 70’s suggests that everything in the black hole would not be conserved but would in fact vanish due to its deteriorating mass
Hawking Seems to be changing the term “event horizon” to apparent horizon
The apparent horizon holds things temporarily then lets them go
Trials
Falling into a Black Hole
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/encyc_mod3_q16.html
How a star becomes a Black Hole
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/encyc_mod3_q12.html
Finding the mass of a Black Hole
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/encyc_mod3_q14.html
Drop clock into Black Hole
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/encyc_mod3_q15.html
(drop clock into black hole)

Black Holes
Prevents Light and everything else from escaping
Strength comes from a large amount of matter being squeezed into a small place
3x the mass of the sun into a city


It is impossible to observe Black Holes directly.
Their presence is detected by studying their effect on matter nearby
A Black Hole will draw in or attract any matter or light that it is neighboring.
It is near impossible to escape the pull of a black hole.
This process is known as accretion
If a star were to pass by a black hole the gravitational pull would be too overwhelmingly strong that it would tear the star apart as it was “sucked” in
Black Holes Effect on Neighboring Matter
The fact that there is no event horizon suggests that there are no black holes in the sense that “light can’t escape to infinity”

Any matter acquired further ads to the density of the black hole
Any attracted matter accelerates and heats up emitting powerful gamma ray bursts that are sent flying into space
These bursts has huge effects on nearby neighborhoods as they distort space. They devour planets, stir the growth of new stars, and in some areas stump the growth of new stars
TIMELINE

1796- LaPlace foreshadowed the idea of Black Holes by proclaiming that a certain velocity was needed to escape the gravitational pull of an object
1915- Albert Einstein the famous German physicist develops the theory of general relativity, which becomes the main focus for Black Holes
1916- Karl Schwarzschild another German scientist created the theory that enough matter packed into a small enough space would have such a powerful gravitational field that nothing could escape from it
1931-1935- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar an Indian scientist was one of the main pioneers of the theory of white dwarfs. He would go on to say that as a star dies out a black hole is born because as a heavy star dies out they sometimes tend to die out in a more vicious cycle which could the create a black hole.

1967- John A. Wheeler creates the term Black Holes for the concept of what was originally called a collapsed star
1971- Cygnus X1 is found it is the first possible sighted Black Hole

1974- Stephen Hawking presents that Black Holes will eventually evaporate and that they may not be even black after all
2000- Supermassive Black Holes are linked to the evolution of galaxies. Galaxies are linked to the birth of stars.
REVIEW GAME
The Schwarzschild radius is the region of infinitely small volume where all the matter of the black hole resides.
True or False?

A Kerr black hole, a black hole with a spin, has an inner and outer event horizon.
True of False?

A black hole:
A) Follows all laws of physics
B) Follows all laws of physics except gravity
C) Does not follow any laws of physics making it difficult for scientists to study
D) None of the above

A black hole is born when:
A) A star dies
B) A supernova explosion occurs
C) They have always existed and there are no new births
D) A & B

What is the process called when a black hole draws matter inward?
a) Attraction
b) Accretion
c) Suction
d) Absorption


What is the name of the “point of no return” that surrounds a black hole?
a) Attraction orbit
b) Accretion zone
c) Event Horizon
d) Gravitational Field
Work Cited
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/black-holes/
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html#.UwaP3vldUus
http://hubblesite.org/explore_astronomy/black_holes/encyc_mod3_q3.html
http://www.astrosociety.org/edu/publications/tnl/24/24.html
http://jila.colorado.edu/~ajsh/insidebh/rn.html
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/black-holes/
"Black Holes Encyclopedia." StarDate. National Science Foundation. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://blackholes.stardate.org/history/>.
http://www.universetoday.com/76909/white-holes/#ixzz2uHzF0HAz
White Holes
A white hole is the theorized time reversal of a black hole. The event horizon of a black hole attracts matter, so event horizon of a white hole ejects matter even though the white hole itself still attract matter. The main difference between the two is the action of the event horizon.
The event horizon of a black hole will engulf every particle of matter that it encounters; however, a white hole shrinks away from any and all matter so that nothing ever crosses the event horizon.
The concept of a white hole only appears as part of the vacuum solution to Einstein’s field equations that are used to describe a Schwarzschild wormhole. A wormhole is a black hole on one end, drawing in matter, and a white hole on the other to emit matter.
A white hole is only a concept for higher levels of thinking. No one has every observed one and no one probably ever will. A few scientist think that a white hole could be part and parcel of a concept called a Fecund universe.
Schwarzschild radius: How much an object would have to be compressed in order to become a black hole.
o Depends on the mass of the original object
o The schwarzschild radius for Earth is about the size of a marble
o The size of the event horizon is proportional to the mass of the black hole

Mass: The mass of a black hole depends on the mass of the original object

Charge: Reissner-Nordstrom black holes have a charge
o The mathematical solution implies that there is a one-way wormhole that connects to a white hole
o Results in an inner and outer event horizon

Spin: Kerr black holes have a spin
o results in the matter around them moving
o When a black hole spins around an axis, it becomes more complex
o There is an inner and outer event horizon
o The static limit: the outer edge of the ergosphere
o The ergosphere: a region that is forced to rotate with the black hole but the objects can still escape.

Our sun will become a black hole.
True or False?


White hole, as black hole, engulf every particle of matters,
True or False?

The concept of a white hole can be explained by Einstein’s field equations that are used to describe a Schwarzschild wormhole,
True or False?
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