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The Plantations of Ireland

Junior Cert History Unit
by

Fintan O'Mahony

on 17 January 2012

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Transcript of The Plantations of Ireland

The Plantation of Laois-Offaly Queen Mary began the Plantation to bring Ireland under control
Anyone who refused to accept English law would be driven off the land and loyal settlers would move in
English laws, customs, language and farming would be introduced
The lands of the O'Moores of Laois and the O'Connors of Offaly were first to be planted The Plan of the Plantation
Two thirds of the land was to be planted with settlers from England and the Pale. The loyal Gaelic Irish would get land nearer the Shannon
New settlers could not marry Gaelic Irish or take them on as tenants
The settlers were expected to defend themselves
They paid one penny an acre to the Crown
The land was organised into counties- Laois was to be called Queen's County, it's capital was Maryborough (now Portlaoise); Offaly was to be called King's County with it's main town was Phillipstown (now Daingean) Queen Elizabeth appointed Presidents in Connaught and Munster to make sure Anglo-Irish Lords co-operated, and English laws were obeyed.
They would not accept the Protestant religion and the Queen feared Ireland could be used as a base for attack by her enemies.
The Lords resented the interference from the English and rebellion brole out in Ireland. The Plantation of Munster Results of Laois-Offaly Plantation
It was never fully put into practice
Too few settlers could be found to make it work properly
The Gaelic Irish gradually retook the area in attacks
Many important lessons were learned by the English Rebellion in Munster
1567 The Earl of Desmond was called to England to discuss a dispute with the Earl of Ormond, a loyal follower of the Queen. Desmond was held untl 1573
1569 James Fitzmaurice, a cousin, led a rebellion in Munster with some Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Lords. They were defeated by Munster president, Fitzmaurice went to Europe for help
1573 Desmond swears loyalty to Elizabeth, he is released
1579 Fitzmaurice returned with a small army, Desmond supported him and fighting spread over Munster and Wicklow
1583 With Ormond's help, they were defeated. Thousand died from famine. Desmond land was confiscated, a plan of plantation was begun. Rent would pay for the war The government decided to carry out a survey of the confiscated land before it was planted. 'The Peyton Survey' was to find out
how much land was available for planting
place a value on that land
record the names of the people living on the land
list Church property
record the minerals, woodland and livestock on it Plan of the Munster Plantation
Land to be divided into estates of 4,000, 8,000 and 12,000 acres
It would be offered to UNDERTAKERS
(Called this because they undertook or agreed to certain conditions)
Undertakers agreed to:
receive a maximum of 12,000 acres
bring over English tenants and not take on Irish tenants (12,000 acres = 90 families + his own
never marry into an Irish family
follow English laws and farming methods and speak English
pay rent 12,000 acres = £1 for 180 acres
be defended by English soldiers for seven years, after that defend themselves The undertakers were often the younger sons of country gentlemen from the south-west of England. Because they could not inherit their fathers' land, cheap irish land was attractive. All ploughs and animals were to be brought with them and they paid all the expenses
Some people who worked for the government in Ireland also got land in Munster as did some army officers who were paid their wages in land. (Servitors) Results of the Plantation
Plantation towns like Mallow, Tralee, Bandon and Killarney were built
Planters developed the fishing industry in ports like Baltimore and Kenmare
The government wanted them to grow grain but planters found the land more suitable for pasture and they concentrated on sheep and cattle
The value of exports from Ireland to England greatly increased (timber for ships, wool and cattle too, Youghal was the chief port for exports)
Munster remained peaceful for a while, but during the Nine Years War, many settlers were driven off and their lands and property were destroyed
The Ulster Plantation Background to the Plantation
Ulster was ruled by powerful Gaelic chieftans, the most powerful were the O'Donnells of Tyrconnell (Donegal and the O'Neills of Tyrone
Elizabeth wanted them to follow English law and religion, but they rebelled in 1594. The Nine Years War followed
They had victories over the English (Battle of the Yellow Ford), the Irish in Munster rebelled in support
4,000 Spanish soldiers sent by Philip II landed at Kinsale, but even after O'Neill and O'Donnell marched south they were defeated at Battle of Kinsale 1601.
1603 O'Neill signed Treaty of Mellifont in which he surrendered to the English Flight of the Earls
1607 O'Neill and other Ulster chieftans fled Ireland rather than face further pressure from the English. They sailed from Lough Swilly to Europe, leaving the land free for plantation Plan of the Plantation
King James had granted land to Sir Hugh Mongomery and Sir James Hamilton in Antrim and Down before the plantation began. They brought thousands of Protestant Scottish settlers witht them
Monaghan, the land of the Gaelic MacMahons and MacKennas, had remained loyal to the crown during the Nine Years War so it was not planted
The remaining counties were surveryed and mapped. Catholic Church land was given to the Church of Ireland. The remainer was divided into estates of 2,000, 1,500 and 1,000 acres Undertakers
3 types: Undertakers, Servitors and Native Irish
Undertakers paid £1 per 187 , came from Scotland and England, brought tenants with them , but could not take on Irish tenants
Servitors who had worked for the government or the army paid £1 per 125 acres, they could have Irish tenants
Native Irish undertakers got land if they could prove they were loyal, they paid £1 per 94 acres.

Any undertaker getting 2,000 acres had to build a castle and a bawn
Those who received 1,500 acres had to build a stone house and a bawn
Anyone who got 1,000 acres had to build a bawn

They were expected to defend themselves Results of the Plantation
large numbers of Protestants, especially from Scotland arrived; they outnumbered the Irish in time
They built plantation towns
The Catholics and Protestants becami segregated, this is still a feature of Ulster society
Scottish Presbyterianism arrived and a religious divide, also a lasting problem, began
Ulster remained peaceful until 1641 when rebellion again broke out
The Cromwellian Plantation Background
1641 Ulster rebels massacred 10,000 planters. Many fled and talk of revenge began in Britain
1642 Civil War broke out in England between King Charles and parliament
1649 Parliament won, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

Cromwell came to Ireland
to avenge the deaths of Ulster Protestants
to end the fighting which had spread from England to Ireland
to pay his soldiers with Irish land

Cromwell landed in Dublin in August 1649 with 12,000 soldiers
His first target was Drogheda which blocked the way to Ulster
The town was captured and a massacre followed
Next they marched south to take the rest of the country
Many towns surrendered when the news of the massacre reached them, though there were seiges at Wexford, Waterford, Kilkenny and Clonmel (the only town to escape heavy loss of life)
After also taking Cork, Cromwell returned to England, leaving his son-in-law Henry Ireton in charge. The last large towns surrendered in 1652. Plan of Plantation
All soldiers who surrendered were allowed to leave the country, 30,000 went to Europe
Widows, orphans, prisoners and beggars, all transported to sugar plantations in the West Indies
Puritanism was to be introduced so priests were ordered to leave; those who refused were also transported to the West Indies. Some remained in hiding
All supporters of the 1641 rebellion and royalists had their lands confiscated, those who could not proved their loyalty to Parliament still had their land confiscated, but were sent to Connaught - To Hell or to Connaught
Sir William Petty surveyed and mapped the whole country, The Down Survey (because everything was written down for the first time) Results
Some of Cromwell's soldiers sold the land and returned to England, others intermarried with the Irish
New settlers were under constant attack from Irish outlaws (Tories)
By 1700 nearly 90% of Irish land belonged to Protestant landowners
Full transcript