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Comparing and Contrasting Experimental Non-Experimental Methods

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by

Lucy Morgan

on 30 September 2012

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Transcript of Comparing and Contrasting Experimental Non-Experimental Methods

Non-Experimental Methods Experimental Methods Laboratory Experiments Aim of Experiments To find a relationship between the dependent and independent variable
To be ecologically valid
To be replicable
To be able to generalize the results Strengths
Easy to replicate
Easy to manipulate variables
Limitations
does not ensure ecological validity
Example
Testing reaction to auditory vs visual stimulus Field Experiments Strengths
Performed in a natural environment allows for ecological validity
Limitations
More difficult to control variables
Difficult to replicate
Example
Gauging people's reaction to a scene on the street Natural Experiments Strengths
Ecologically valid
Limitations
No control over variables
Difficult to replicate
Example
Studying children with divorced parents Interview Strengths Aim To ensure ecological validity
To avoid artificiality
To get a better sense of the participants Gives a personal feeling of the participant Limitations Interviewer Effects
Participant Bias
Social Desirability Bias Structured Interview Strengths
Highly controlled
Data is easier to analyze
Limitations
Might be artificial as interviewer must stick to a schedule
Example
Survey like: amount of sleep in a night Semi-Structure Strengths
Questions allow participant to answer freely
Maintains interview focus
Limitations
Some of the data may be difficult to analyze
Example
A job interview Unstructured Strengths
More can be revealed about the participant
Limitations
Data is difficult to analyze
It is easy to get off topic
Example
A timed discussion with the aim to know views on love. Observation Strengths Takes place in a neutral setting so participants feel comfortable Researcher Bias
Reactivity
Ethics Non-Participant Observation Strengths
Researcher can be more objective
Limitations
Might not see the full picture
Example
Observing how girls eat when they are aware they are being watched and not aware Participant Observation Strengths
Researcher can feel what they feel
Limitations
Might be overwhelmed
Not objective
Example
Researcher takes part in the experiment, is part of the group of people and observes while within it.
Gauging a class reaction to test results Example Case Study Strengths Uses a variety of techniques to get different perspectives
Specifically focuses on one aspect
Can be explored from all levels of analysis Limitations Cannot be generalized
cannot be replicated Similar things to consider Studying how one person deals with a sex change
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