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Psychological effect of drug addictions!!

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nirupama gaba

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of Psychological effect of drug addictions!!

Psychological effect of Drug Addictions BY: Nirupama Gaba, Harjot Kaur, Kashish Dhir, Bhupinder Singh&Manpreet Bagri. Ecstasy, Methamphetamine, Amphetamine,Cocaine, Crack Cocaine, etc. They decrease the activity of Central Nervous system and reduce pain relieving stress, anxiety, and fear putting the person at ease. Hallucinogen Speed up the activity of the nervous system, makes Individual feel more alert and energetic. Examples: Cannabis, Heroin, Morphine, Methadone, Codeine, etc. They alter perceptions of reality and may results in hallucinations. Better known as mind-altering drugs. Examples: LSD, Magic Mushrooms (Psilocybin), PCP (Phencyclidine), Ketamine. Heroin Heroin is made from morphine, a naturally occurring substance that comes from the opium poppy plant.
Pure heroin is a fine, white, bitter-tasting crystalline powder.
Highly Addictive

HEROIN MAY BE :
Dissolved in water and injected into a vein ("mainlining"), muscle, or under the skin ("skin-popping")
Smoked
Snorted After taking heroin, it travels through bloodstream and easily enters the brain. In the brain, heroin is converted back into morphine. Morphine interacts with specific proteins on the brain cells called opioid receptors. These opioid receptors send signals between brain cells (neurons) and ultimately change the way a person experiences pain. What is Drug Addiction? Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. Why do people take drugs ? Ecstasy The chemical name for ecstasy is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
The chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine (a stimulant) and mescaline (a hallucinogen).
It is a street drug that is only made in illegal labs.
It is usually sold as a tablet, capsule, or powder Short term effects: Decreased appetite
Increased blood pressure and heart rate
Increase in body temperature
Teeth grinding and jaw pain
Nausea and vomiting People who use ecstasy often may lose weight.
Develop chronic exhaustion, fatigue, and muscle aches.
They often have trouble sleeping and may be anxious and depressed.
Some people develop flashbacks, delusions, hallucinations, and psychotic symptoms that last after the effects of ecstasy have worn off.
Studies in animals have shown that ecstasy can damage certain brain cells and that these effects can be long-lasting. Heroin Depression
Sleeplessness
Difficulty concentrating & Memory Problems Lack of emotion (apathy)
Reduced appetite
Decreased response to pain
Pinpoint pupils and impaired night vision
Constipation
Itching or burning sensation of the skin
Headaches Long -Term Effects: An unstable mood
Loss of interest in sex (decreased libido)
Missed periods in women
Respiratory impairment Three categories of Drugs Stimulants Stimulants Depressants Hallucinogen Examples: Depressants It is considered a brain disease because drugs change the brain - they change its structure and how it works. Most abused drugs produce intense feelings of pleasure. To feel good: To do better: Some people who suffer from social anxiety, stress-related disorders,begin abusing drugs to lessen feelings of distress. To feel better: Some Individuals use drugs to chemically enhance or improve their athletic or cognitive performance. Peer pressure: Strong influence of peer pressure, for example, to engage in "thrilling" and "daring" behaviors (also known as Adam, Euphoria, hug drug, M, M&M, rave, love drug, Party pill, Beans) Ecstasy long term effects: Withdrawal symptoms: Category: Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants How does Heroin Affect the Body? Short-Term Effects: Heroin Heroin overdose An overdose of heroin can be deadly.

A person who has overdosed may have one or more of the following symptoms:
Cold clammy skin
Decreased and irregular heart rate
Slow and shallow breathing
Bluish skin (cyanosis)
Unconsciousness (a deep sleep that may develop into a coma) Withdrawal symptoms Symptoms of withdrawal begin within 6 to 12 hour after the last use. During this period a person is extremely uncomfortale and has:

Intense and persistent cravings for heroin
Depression
Dehydration and weight loss from not eating or drinking during the experience
Sweating
Anxiety and restlessness
Loss of appetite
Dilated pupils
Insomnia Heroin addiction can be treated effectively with methadone, a long acting drug that is taken by mouth. Methadone maintenance treatment prevents heroin withdrawal and reduces or eliminates the cravings. Treatment: Cocaine and Crack Cocaine Cocaine is a stimulant that comes from the leaves of the South American coca bush. It is processed to form a white crystalline powder (cocaine hydrochloride).This is the form of cocaine that is snorted or dissolved in water and injected.

Crack cocaine or "freebase" are smokeable forms of cocaine which look like crystals or rocks. These forms of cocaine are made by chemically changing cocaine powder. How does it affect ? After using cocaine, it travels in the bloodstream to the brain. Cocaine increases the amount of dopamine (a neurotransmitter) in the part of the brain that is responsible for producing pleasure.

It reaches the brain faster when it is smoked or injected. Short term effects There are many unwanted and dangerous effects associated with using cocaine. A person on cocaine may feel agitated and nervous. Cocaine can also produce euphoria ("high") and can make a person feel mentally alert, energetic and talkative.
Paranoid thinking
Anxiety
Dry Mouth
Rapid breathing long Term effetcs Taking large amounts of cocaine for a long time can have many unwanted effects. People using cocaine may become depressed, have mood swings, or become restless and excitable. Their behaviour may be erratic, bizarre, or violent.
Some people become psychotic and can experience:
Hallucinations
Delusions
Heavy users may have trouble sleeping, may change between feelings of intense hunger and a lack of interest in food. Users may experience impotence (sexual dysfunction).
Cocaine can constrict blood vessels in the brain, causing strokes. Cocaine causes seizures and can lead to bizarre or violent behavior. A person may lose his/her sense of smell and develop sinus infections. The wall that separates the nostrils may develop a hole and bleed often.

Smoking crack cocaine can cause chest pain and breathing difficulties (crack lung).

Sharing drug supplies, such as needles, pipes, straws, and spoons, can spread viruses. These include HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Withdrawal Symptoms Cocaine is highly addictive. Regular cocaine users can also develop psychological dependence which is characterized by intense cravings for the drug even when the user knows there are significant consequences.
REGULAR USERS WHO SUDDENLY STOP USING COCAINE MAY EXPERIENCE
Extended and restless sleep
Hunger
Irritability
Suicidal thoughts
Intense craving for the drug LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) LSD is a hallucinogen that is commonly referred to as "acid". It is manufactured from lysergic acid which is made from a fungus (ergotamine tartrate) that grows on rye and other grains. It is very potent- pure LSD the size of a small pill is enough for approximately 3,000 doses. Short term effects LSD produces vivid visual effects. These visual effects are referred to as "pseudo-hallucinations" because users are aware that they are not real.True hallucinations are visions that are perceived as real. Hallucinations on LSD rarely occur, and can be frightening. Other Psychotic effects may include: Extreme mood swings from joy, desperation, depression, anxiety, terror, aggression
Difficulty concentrating
Impaired judgement (distance, time, speed)
Impaired short-term memory
Recent or long-forgotten memories may blend with the present LSD acid Psychosis
Depression
Paranoid states
"flashbacks"
A "flashback" is the spontaneous and unpredictable re-occurrence of LSD visual distortions or emotional experiences during a previous episode of LSD use. Only some people who take LSD experience flashbacks. Long therm effects People who use LSD regularly do not experience physical withdrawal symptoms when they stop. However, it can be psychologically addictive. Treatment and Recovery Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Seeks to help patients recognize, avoid, and cope with the situations in which they are most likely to abuse drugs Group Therapy: Helps patients face their drug abuse realistically, come to terms with its harmful consequences, and boost their motivation to stay drug free. Motivational Incentives. Uses positive reinforcement such as providing rewards or privileges for remaining drug free, for attending and participating in counseling sessions, or for taking treatment medications as prescribed.
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