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Bosnian War Presentation

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Michael Hottman

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of Bosnian War Presentation

Bosnian War A War in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats Catholic Croats were a whopping 33% of the population

They were on the same physical side of Bosnia as the Bosiaks, but they weren't buddies. Serbs Orthodox Serbs were 33% of the population

Trouble makers!

First to take military action and arranged the playing feild with themselves on one side, against the other two groups Carrington-Cutileiro Peace Plan EU Peace Conference Chair, Lord Carrington and Portuguese Ambassador Jorge Cutiliero
What it did?
Weak central government
Administration at district level - Arranged by ethnic groups Vance-Owen Peace Plan Administration changed to 10 larger districts
Intention to hinder partition of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Created a de facto partition The
Conflict Bosniaks Armed forces: The Republic of Boasnian and Herzegovina

A muslim group that accounted for 44% of the population Owen-Stoltenberg Plan Spin off of Vance-Owen Plan
3 separate ethnic states International Joint Action Plan - The Contact Group Peace
Plans Dayton Agreement Four Phases of Aid Ongoing
Peaceful Protests UNMiBH Complications http://www.pbs.org/wnet/women-war-and-peace/features/interactive-map-understanding-the-dayton-accords/ Interactive Peace Plan Map of Bosnia-Herzegovina 1992-1995 Both plans were eventually rejected by all parties 1994 US decides to take an active role
Cease-fire
Bi-Communal Federation
Relation improvement with Croatia
Contact Group Plan
Bosnia as a sovereign state
Federation and Bosnian-Serb Entity
Both Fed. and B-S group would have mutual constitution with laid out relationship with Croatia and Serbia Contact Group
in Geneva Bosnia single state
Equal Division of Land between Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb
51/49 %
Constitutional Structure
Free and Fair elections
Respect for all human rights As summarized by PBS and the US Department of State Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) agree to:
Fully respect the sovereign equality of one another and to settle disputes by peaceful means
Recognize each other, and agree to discuss further aspects of their mutual recognition
Fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made in the various Annexes, and they obligate themselves to respect human rights and the rights of refugees and displaced person
cooperate fully with all entities, including those authorized by the United Nations Security Council, in implementing the peace settlement and investigating and prosecuting war crimes and other violations of international humanitarian law. " " UN NATO

Peacekeeping and Intervention UNPROFOR Main Goal in Bosnia and Herzegovina:
monitor cease-fire well enough to keep the population alive
Cease Fire
Fighting ended October 11th, 1995
UNPROFOR monitored until peace negotiations were completed on December 20th, 1995 (Dayton Peace Agreement) Serbs
Accused UN forces of being one sided and impartial Peacekeepers
Felt UNPROFOR was one sided and that all UN and NATO resolutions were void United Nations Response
Accused the Serbs of "terrorist" acts and barely bothered to feign impartiality Phase 1: Aid to Sarajevo

Phase 2: Escort of Humanitarian Aid

Phase 3: Protecting Safe Areas
Bihać, Sarajevo,Goražde, Žepa and Tuzla

Phase 4: Monitoring NATO Implementation force (IFOR) - Implemented to enforce Dayton Peace Agreement
Stabilisation Force (SFOR) - Maintained safe and secure environment and country’s reconstruction
Included Air Raids and NATO fighters shooting down Serb Jets
Increased in aggressive actions in order to eliminate Serb anti-air capabilities
Operation Joint Endeavor
1995 NATO Bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina of Bosnian Serbs Fuel for the Fire Suada Dilberovic
Peaceful Protester
Shot by Serbian snipers
“Oh please do not tell me this is happening to Sarajevo.” Additional
Peace Efforts Bosfam Break up of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Territorial disputes with all sides attempting to control land Bibliography December 1995
-
UN Security Council established an International Police Task Force (IPTF) to keep the peace in Bosnia-Herzegovina


Tasks Included
-
Monitoring, observing and inspecting

Advising, training, facilitating and assisting


Strength
-
Originally - 1,721 civilian police and 5 military liaison officers
Increased - 2,057 civilian police still with 5 military liaison officers http://bosnianews.blogspot.com/2008/05/concentration-camp-survivors-held.html

Boulding, Elise. "Demilitarization: The Hardest Challenge for States and Civil Societies." Cultures of Peace: The Hidden Side of History. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 2000. 241-42. Print.

http://www.cato.org/pubs/fpbriefs/fpb-034.html

http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/bureaus/eur/releases/951101BosniaRoad.html

http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_52122.htm

http://newshopper.sulekha.com/bosnian-serb-people-hold-photos-of-radovan-karadzic-during-a-peaceful-protest-in-the-bosnian-town-of-banja-luka-120-kms-northwes_photo_229516.htm

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/26/opinion/26iht-edja_1.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/08/opinion/global/lingering-tensions-in-sarajevo.html?_r=1&

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bosnia/dayton_peace.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/women-war-and-peace/features/interactive-map-understanding-the-dayton-accords/

http://www.pkops.net/ops/unprofor.htm

http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/bosnia/dayframe.html

http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unprof_b.htm

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unmibh/mandate.html Boulding
Similar to Cold War, UN commissioners determined not to give up disarmament
1997 - Serbian forces attempting "ethnic cleansing"
NATO bombs Serbian nationalists
Boulding describes NATO as a military alliance that relies heavily on nuclear weapons and represents the major obstacle in creating nuclear-weapon free zones in western Europe as well as jeopardizing peace-building initiatives from the Council of Europe Pg. 241-245 2008 - On the steps of FBiH government building
One hour peaceful protest to claim status as victims of torture NGO
Helping displaced women of Bosnia
Heals past injuries through communication and support
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