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NAVIGATION

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by

jason rampersad

on 30 October 2014

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Transcript of NAVIGATION

Using the night sky can be quicker and easier than using a compass
Find the Plough or Big Dipper
Use the two pointer stars (where the liquid would pour out of the dipper)
The North Star will ALWAYS be five times the distance between these two pointers in the direction where they point 'out' of the pan
Once you've found the North Star, true North always lies below it.
The Compass
trees
wind
moss
landmarks
rocks & puddles
Navigating with Nature
daytime
nighttime
sky must be clear
Using the Sky
Global Positioning System
network of 24 satellites (first intended for military use)
how it works: 3 vs 4 or more satellites; triangulation
works in any weather condition, 24 hrs/day, anywhere in the world*
What is GPS?
GPS / electronic methods
using the sky
natural methods
map & compass
Introduction
NAVIGATION
GPS Satellites
Hand-held Devices
Source: Garmin
Or Where Are We?
The new, the old & the reliable
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
What could possibly go wrong?
obstructions
receiver errors
orbital errors
battery
Source: Google Images
Smartphone Apps
Google Maps
Navfree
Co-Pilot
Trail Tracker
Commander Compass
etc...
Source: Google Images
Let's go outside!
Source: Google Images
Finding True North
locate the Big Dipper
find the 2 'pointer' stars
move 5x the distance between these 2 stars
True North lies directly under this point
does not move, but the Big Dipper does
Source: Google Images
Finding True North II
obstructed Big Dipper?
use Cassiopeia
found opposite the Big Dipper & points to the North Star
Source: Google Images
Orion's Belt
Orion rises in the East & sets in the West
Belt: the only 3 stars that form a short straight line
NB: if lost, do not travel at night. Take a bearing & use rocks/sticks to make note of direction for use the next day.
Source: Google Images
Another Method
can't find the big 3?
check this out!
Source: YouTube
Seasons
(Roll On By)
sun rises in the East & settles in the West (or does it?)
spring & summer equinoxes (E-W)
summer solstice (NE-NW)
winter solstice (SE-SW)
Source: Google Earth
Got the Time?
point hour hand to the sun
halfway point between the hour hand & 12 = due South
digital watch? no problem
Trees
bulkier on the South side
circle a few times to be sure
South branches horizontal
North branches vertical
easier to see from above (e.g. top of a hill)
more useful in open spaces
Wind
familiarize yourself with prevailing wind direction
Moss
don't rely on moss too close to the ground
tricky because moss really only needs moisture, regardless of direction
look for smooth surface
North side if smooth surface & other factors eliminated; sun dries South side
Landmarks
make mental notes of natural & human-made objects
look back frequently
make markers, if necessary
also useful in cities
Rocks & Puddles
even on overcast days, the sun's light & heat are still present; feel a rock - one side should be warmer = South side
puddles dry out faster on the South side
Have a Plan, Stan
be prepared
know the terrain
make landmarks, if necessary
know current & prevailing weather patterns
tell someone your planned route & your estimated time of return
have a map, watch, & compass - and know how to use them!
be aware of your surroundings
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
Source: Google Images
Not 100% reliable!
& You
Source: Google Images
History
first compass made with lodestone
Chinese first to employ the compass
used by Europeans in the 12th century
Fact: The compass will never become obsolete.
Parts of a Compass
baseplate
housing
direction-of-travel arrow
needle
index pointer
dial
orienting arrow
orienting lines
Source: Google Images
Get Your Bearings
What is a bearing?
direction from one spot to another, measured in degrees from the reference line of North
Navigating with a Map
Important features of a good orienteering map:
grid lines
key
contour lines
scale
Source: Google Images
Navigating with a Map II
draw a line from where you are to where you want to go
line up the map with the landscape
orientate the map
determine direction of travel
Tips:
thumbing
noting features on the map
Source: Google Images
Final Thoughts & Tips
Questions
Source: Google Images
24; 2 orbits/day
12,000 miles up
7,000 miles/hour
solar-powered
1978; each one lasts ~10 yrs
Full transcript