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How Qwizdom can be used to assist in the learning and teaching for students?

Guidance Paper

Paul Wheeler

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of How Qwizdom can be used to assist in the learning and teaching for students?

A guidance paper by Paul Wheeler How Qwizdom can be used to assist in the learning and teaching of students? Introduction Challenges Ways Forward & Final Reflections Outcomes & Discussion Method and findings Qwizdom & other clickers Testing
A range of potential uses and applications for Qwizdom will be explored however it will focus on one simple application. How to perform quick 'in class' assessments to check for student learning. Learning and teaching in Higher Education can be enhanced by the use of various ICT resources but it can also present a number of challenges. This paper will demonstrate how the use of one specific ICT resource can help to contribute to positive learning and teaching outcomes and how it can complement other forms of more traditional teaching. The ICT tool that is the focus of this study is

The development of digital technologies and supporting infrastructure could herald the beginning of a “digital age.”
Starkey (2012)
This paper will show that “this digital age” has already dawned. Just as technology is influencing and supporting what is being learned in schools and universities, so too is it supporting changes to the way students are learning. (Oliver, 2003)
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi= The current generation of Higher Education students are the first to have had their lives totally influenced by ICT and mobile devices across a whole host of functions. (Lenhart and Madden 2005) Research has shown that 89% of teenagers thought that ICT made their life easier which further demonstrates how this current generation has embraced the day to day use of ICT.
Macgill (2007) 3 Papers on L&T
For example:
Lofstrom, Erika; Nevgi, Anne. University teaching staffs’ pedagogical awareness displayed through
ICT-facilitated teaching. Interactive Learning Environments. Aug2008, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p101-116.

Mishra, Punya. Rethinking Technology & Creativity in the 21st Century: Crayons are the FutureTechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning. Sep2012, Vol. 56 Issue 5, p13-16.
http://link.springer.com/journal/11528/56/5/page/1#page-1 Current Qwizdom users at the University of Chichester
Paul Wheeler
Rachel Mackinney
Ed Christian
Craig Pulling
Current Uses
Getting students to vote as part of a debate
Quiz to check their understanding
After setting students some independent reading it helps check their understanding
At the end of modules as an evaluation tool. The information technology (IT) revolution is creating new expectations and opportunities for how university students want to and can learn.
(Scott, Grebennikov & Gozzard 2009)

Today in the second decade of the twenty first century students simply expect it, although young people's engagements with digital technologies are varied and often unspectacular.
(Selwyn 2009)

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1800799&show=abstract The use of ICT is not always easy and straightforward. Trying to use, and failing with technology in front of students can be just as damaging as not using it all.
(Chin 2004)

Teachers are still adapting computer use to fit their traditional practices rather than adapting the actual way they teach to fully benefit from the opportunities ICT provides.
(Cuban 2001) So does ICT really enhance learning and engagement? A 2005 study in New Zealand of teachers using laptops with data projectors reported that this engaged students creatively and critically in their learning.
(Cowie et al 2008)

In contrast another study identified that student learning and attainment was only enhanced through the use of ICT when combined with effective teaching. It is not a substitute.
(Cox et al 2004)

Furthermore students really benefit from technology when technology is used to enhance educational goals and not as an entity itself.
(Thompson and Burnett 2004)
http://butbarbados.com/images/conference15.pdf Learning in the digital age is a process of mastering concepts and skills, exploring the boundaries of these and creating knowledge through connections.
Learning in the digital age is not a passive activity. Students are actively participating in the process and have some accountability for their own learning.
(Starkey 2012) Framework for Learning In the digital age there are a range of opportunities where learning takes place. Learners in the digital age will develop and use a range of strategies to help and think about and monitor their own learning process.
(Starkey 2012) Further studies are still required to ascertain if ICT really does enhance learning and engagement but research has shown that it is impacting on current teaching methods. Where ICT is currently used the concept of “technological pedagogical content knowledge” is likely to be redundant and subsumed into general “pedagogical content knowledge” as the use of ICT becomes the norm.
(Schmidt et al 2009)

http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/pluginfile.php/491591/mod_page/content/1/TPACK_UC/pdf/tpack4_preservice2.pdf Tests are a natural part of education The application of ICT to the process of learning has highlighted four general learning activities that it can be successfully applied to. One of these is assessing learning.
(Alessi and Trollip 2001) - see Fig 1 ICT can assist with students learning and teaching through knowledge reinforcement and through computer-assisted assessment for formative and summative assessment. Why is it important to test for signs of learning? It is important to assess students for evidence of learning at key stages of their education.
Different styles of pedagogy are required for different types of learners who learn in different ways and also at different rates.
(Soden 2000) ICT enables tutors to reflect on details taught as it is important not only from the student’s perspective but also from that of the tutor. It must therefore be asked.

'Have the aims and objectives of the course been met and are there any particular areas of the module that have been missed or explained poorly reducing the opportunity for the students to learn key material?' Tutors can use ICT to understand the learning needs and accomplishments of students.
It will be the basis of teaching plans that will progress student learning across years and cohorts.
(Starkey 2012) Testing, testing It is important to get the balance right and ensure that we are testing for learning and not simply testing for test sake and that this message is communicated to the students.
Although research has not fully examined the impact of this test dominated environment on student attitudes towards learning it is suspected that for most students education is less joyous than it was and for the reluctant learner education is worse than ever.
(Nichols and Berliner 2008)

Further studies have asked “Do summative assessment and testing have a positive or negative effect on post-16 learners' motivation for learning in the learning and skills sector?”
(Torrance and Coultas 2004)


But it remains important to test for learning from the students’ perspective and from the tutors' to reflect on the content taught. One of the key components of engaging students in the assessment of their own learning is providing them with descriptive feedback as they learn. This can be effectively achieved by using ICT applications.
(Garrison and Ehringhaus 2007)

You tube: There are a multitude of different ICT devices that have been developed to assist tutors in the learning and teaching environment but this study is specifically focusing on what are known as 'Personal Response Systems.' Research shows active learning creates class room excitement. “The interactive process was designed to increase the students’ attentiveness, and individual knowledge discovery and increase retention of key learning points.”
(Horowitz 2004) The use of personal response systems, otherwise known as 'clickers', allows tutors and students to interact in a variety of interesting and innovative ways.
(Handley and Jackson 2006)
http://www.techlearning.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=188702514 These have been around for over 30 years with varying degrees of success and take up but, one product stands out and is exceptional and that is

(Handley and Jackson 2006) Many researchers have written articles on “clickers” (Caldwell 2007, Draper and Brown 2004, Beatty et al 2006, Graham et al. 2007, Roschelle et al 2004) have all produce papers evaluating clickers or class voting systems, making references to their pedagogical uses and benefits of these devices. There is also considerable research material available specifically on Qwizdom and citation of its application in all levels of education both positive and negative.
Handley and Jackson’s described the Qwizdom device and its software as providing instant feedback for the student while generating reports about student performance. With displays and paper results that are easy to read and interpret. Further evidence of instant feedback benefits, “It can help teachers quickly identify knowledge gaps so that their teaching is more informed.”
(Frankel, 2007)
Teachers can create their own lessons and Qwizdom can export scores to other programmes. Handley and Jackson did highlight that for some there might be a long learning curve particularly the teacher console for neo-techs.
“If I’d judged Qwizdom on my first use of it, I wouldn’t have used it again. However, once you’ve used it with a class a few times and they know the sequence of events involved in logging on, it all runs smoothly.”
(Griffiths 2011)
http://www.schoolzone.co.uk/evaluations/review-detail.asp?id=1 Various studies have investigated the use of Qwizdom as a teaching aid.
One trialled it as a revision aid for students recognizing the benefit of each student having their own handset and being able to answer questions without being embarrassed by giving the wrong answers.
The study also recognised the teaching benefit of the ability to assess the progress of the students without the need to mark a lot of exam scripts.
Finally it identified that it was good for quiet and shy students who were often afraid to speak up.
(McEwan 2009)
http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/handle/2160/7419 A further outcome of using Qwizdom to assess student learning is to evaluate and reflect on whether the aims of the module have been met, and if the delivery and understanding of the module has been the group based rather than just certain individuals.
Another study using Qwizdom analysed the feedback and results and adapted subsequent lectures accordingly.
(Lindop 2010)
http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/handle/2160/7439/2010%20-%20LINDOP%2c%20S.%20-%20TC2%20-%20Owizdom%20-%20Just%20a%20Bit%20of%20Fun%20or%20a%20Useful%20Exercise.pdf?sequence=1 Lindop's study also identified a range of different applications for using Qwizdom.
At the start of the lecture to review material from the previous lecture
In the middle to provide a break and / or to review material from the first half.
At the end to review all the current lecture material.
Lastly what is known as, the “Same Quiz” at the start and the end of the module to compare previous knowledge and learning.
This final application is the one that this paper will also be trialling and further investigating. While research has highlighted many of the positive aspects of Qwizdom there is some research that presents an alternate view.
Technical problems that might be encountered include logging on, finding networks and properly recording student responses.
(Draper and Brown 2004)
While Qwizdom is an easy operating system tutors do have to achieve a certain level of proficiency before taking the system into the classroom. The cost of clickers is another common student complaint.
(Zhu et al., 2006, 2007) Concerns about costs are exacerbated when students do not see the value of using clickers during lectures.
Once investment has been made it is therefore more cost effective if they are frequently used.
While most students enjoyed the application of using clickers there were some who did not think that it added to lectures and ruined the flow, particularly when delivery problems occurred.
(Zhu et al 2006, 2007) Finally in addition to the actual operation of Qwizdom preparation is required before the session, including the writing of effective multiple choice clicker questions.
The need to ensure that there is a close correlation between the questions and the module curriculum. Simple knowledge based questions appeared to be more suitable than requiring students to engage in critical thinking.
(Beatty et al. 2006) An ability to write effective multiple choice questions and to follow the good practice is important.
1) Distinguish between students’ knowledge of jargon and their understanding of concepts;
2) Create wrong answers (distracters) that seem very logical or plausible to students to prevent them from easily eliminating wrong answers;
3) Limit the number of answer choices to five or less; and
4) Consider including “I don’t know” as an answer choice to prevent students from guessing.
(Wit 2003, Beekes 2006) Within this study Qwizdom was applied was by using a “Same Quiz” assessment with a range of 14 multiple choice questions across the breadth of the syllabus.
The students were given the same set of 14 questions at the start of the semester and then re-tested over the “Same Quiz” questions at the end of the semester. The module chosen for the case study was Introduction to Sport Development and Manager because it was thought that the best group of students to use were first years.
It is suggested that students are keen to perform well in their first assessment and they have a greater keenness to adapt to new methods.
(Gordon 2003) The students were introduced to the study as a method of establishing a benchmark for their own learning and then given a brief introduction on how to use the equipment. No specific monitoring of the individual students was undertaken although there was a prize given for the highest scoring student on each occasion the quiz was undertaken. The data collected and analysed was the results of the group as a whole, this was to identify the collective progress of the learning achieved by comparing the mean scores of the two quizzes. The secondary outcome was to identify any specific questions or subject areas where a significant number of the students had failed to give the correct answer.
Where such a scenario arose this might indicate the need to revisit the teaching of this element of the module. The actual data collected across the two tests did show that a progression in learning had been achieved when comparing the two average mean marks of the class. There was a significant increase in student knowledge demonstrated after the second test with a combined score of 93% correct answers given in the second test. Similarly a review of the questions and the student answers after the second (end of semester assessment) revealed that five questions were answered 100% correct. Whereas for four questions the class average mark was less than 90% correct. These areas are obviously in need of attention.
The tutors should reflect on, and then address the delivery of the module in future years to overcome this shortfall. Qwizdom proved to be a very effective way of undertaking this type of assessment. It was enjoyed by the students and easy for the tutor to assess the results.
One student said after using the equipment that it was the “best lecture that they had had all semester”. For the staff it did meet the desired outcomes.
To check for evidence of learning amongst the students.
To assess the ability of the teaching staff to deliver the different elements of the module. The information gained from the second test was used to revise delivery of the module during the next academic year particularly on the areas were the average marks were less than 90% correct suggesting a lack of learning as a result of ineffective teaching. But what to avoid? It is important to ensure that the team conducting the test should be fully competent with the operation of the equipment and the software.
Remembering the use of ICT is not without its challenges and when things go wrong it can be very frustrating and annoying. It can also undermine the credibility of the teaching staff.
(Chin 2004) Furthermore one should not overuse Qwizdom as the impact of it will become diminished.
However it does remain a flexible tool for student assessment across the various applications identified. What did students and staff learn and what impacts did it have? An early introduction for the students to elements of the module through the test.
An assessment of the student's learning development by the end of the semester.
An effective revision exercise highlighting the student's weaker areas of knowledge.
Familiarity with Qwizdom, preparing students for future tests of learning. This includes to test student knowledge as a formative assessment mid -way through a semester or as a revision exercise at the end of the semester. Some students might still think that ICT equipment is gimmicky and does not really add to their learning. This might be the subject of another study that could be investigated regarding the true impact of ICT in learning and teaching? It increased the knowledge of the staff and consequently improved their own self confidence to teach and to deliver more engaging sessions once they knew they were using proven and student friendly equipment. The use of ICT and Qwizdom in particular offers great potential for teaching the students by way of an alternative delivery method and an even better one for fun and quick formative assessments.
It can also be used to break up sessions and help refocus students during long lectures sessions.
(Beekes 2006). Qwizdom is ideal for collecting end of module evaluation data. By providing instant collation of the data it will save time for the students and for the teaching staff.
This particular utilisation would make for another valuable study to discover if the use of Qwizdom increased the quantity and more importantly the worth of the student module assessments. Traditionally these module evaluations produce weak results as a result of the lack of student engagement, with students only ticking boxes to complete the process as quickly as possible and without the necessary thought process being applied.
It would therefore be interesting to see if the use of Qwizdom produced more meaningful, deeper and ultimately more useful module evaluations Table of some potential uses Given the positive results Qwizdom will be used again for a variety of functions within teaching but new users of Qwizdom should be aware that it does take a little time to learn the Qwizdom system.
This includes the operation of the software during the in class sessions with the students and for the necessary preparation phase including the creation of the multi choice questions prior to stepping into the classroom.
Once the quiz is complete it is definitely worth having a pilot run with a few colleagues first to test the validity of the questions and your ability to use the equipment and the software.
However, once these are mastered the outcomes from using Qwizdom are definitely worth it and a very useful addition to the teaching tools to be deployed and one that certainly does assist tutors in the learning and teaching of students. More information is available on http://www.qwizdom.co.uk/index.php Using Qwizdom during the teaching for the module it succeeded on a number of levels.
It provided an addition method of teaching and assessment which benefited the students on the module in this current year.
It will also help with the teaching of the module in future years. Qwizdom also made the module “different” to other modules on the degree. By selecting first years it gave them a favourable impression of the university:
That it is prepared to use a range of assessment and teaching tools in the delivery of the degree material.
That the teaching staff are prepared to use and embrace ICT in the delivery and not rely solely on traditional teaching methods. An outline of Qwizdom References Alessi, S. and Trollip, S. 2001 Multimedia for Learning, 3rd edn, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.
Beatty, ID., Gerace, WJ., Leonard, WJ. & Dufresne, RJ. (2006), Designing Effective Questions for Classroom Response System Teaching. American Journal of Physics, 74, 31-39.
Beekes, W. (2006). The "Millionaire" method for encouraging participation. Active Learning in Higher Education: The Journal of the Institute for Learning and Teaching, 7(1), 25–36.
Caldwell, JE. (2007), Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best Practice Tips. CBE-Life Sciences Education 6, 9-20.
Chin, P. 2004, Using C&IT to Support Teaching, London, Routledge, Falmer
Cox, M., Webb, M., Harlow, A., Blakeley, B., Beauchamp, T., and Rhodes, V. (2004) ICT and pedagogy: A review of the research literature. London: Dept for Education and Skills
Cowie, B., Jones, A., Harlow, A., McGee, C., Cooper, B., Forret, M., Miller, T., & Gardiner, B (2008) Tela: laptops for teachers evaluation: final report years 9-13, Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Cuban, L., (2001) Oversold and underused: computers in the classroom. Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.
Draper, SW. & Brown, MI. (2004), Increasing Interactivity in Lectures using an Electronic Voting System, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 20, 81-94.
Frankel, H. (2007). Honesty hotline. Times Educational Supplement, (4728), 54-55. http://search.ebscohost.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu
Gordon, J. (2003), Assessing students' personal and professional development using portfolios and interviews. Medical Education, 37: 335–340.
Graham, CR., Tripp, TR., Seawright, L. & Joeckel Ill, GL. (2007), Empowering or Compelling Reluctant Participators using Audience Response Systems. Active Learning in Higher Education 8, 233-258.
Horowitz, Ph.D, Harold M. "Student Response Systems: Interactivity in a Classroom Environment." . 31 Jul 2004 <http://www.qwizdom.com/software/interactivity_in_classrooms.pdf>.(accessed 22/6/2012)
Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. K. (2005). Teen Content Creators and Consumers: More than half of online teens have created content for the internet; and most teen downloaders think that getting free music files is easy to do. Pew Internet & American Life Project.
Roschelle, J., Penuel, WR. & Abrahamson, AL. (2004), The Networked Classroom. Educational Leadership 61, 50-54.
Soden, R. 2000, Teaching and Learning in Further and Higher Education, in T. Bryce and W. Humes (eds) Scottish Education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Starkey, L. (2012), Teaching and Learning in the Digital Age, London, Rutledge.
Wit, E. (2003). Who wants to be... The use of a personal response system in statistics teaching. MSOR Connections, 3(2), 14–20.
Zhu, E., Bierwert, C., & Bayer, K. (2007). Qwizdom Student Survey March 2007. Unpublished raw data. And so finally ... A range of tools can be accessed by students to explore, use and evaluate their learning. This includes devices like: Fig 1 http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar08/vol65/num06/Testing-the-Joy-Out-of-Learning.aspx
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