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Speaking to Persuade
Transcript of Speaking to Persuade
Around us each day. Most challenging
-hardest to persuade
-movement and processing
-anticipate objections Ethics and Persuasion
truth in speech
pros and cons Target Audience
-targeted advertising Questions of Fact
-organizing speech Questions of Value
justify your claim
To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.
Capital punishment violates both the Bible and the U.S. Constitution.
Capital punishment violates the biblical commandment "Thou shall not kill."
Capital punishment violates the constitutional ban on "cruel and unusual punishment." 3 Types of Persuasive Speeches
Questions of Fact
Questions of Value
Questions of Policy Example: John F. Kennedy Assassination
Nonpartisan speaker-would just state the known facts from both sides with no conclusion
Partisan speaker- would draw a conclusion from known facts and try to convert listeners to his/her belief of the conspiracy Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that an earthquake of 9.0 will hit California in the next ten years.
Central Idea: There are three good reasons to believe why this would happen.
California is long overdue for a major earthquake.
Many geological signs indicate that an earthquake may happen soon.
Experts agree that an earthquake of 9.0 or above could strike California any day Question of Fact: I enjoy bicycle riding.
Question of Value: Bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation. Questions of Policy Examples:
What steps should be taken to defend our citizens?
Should the electoral college be abolished?
When do you think we should hire more employees? Speeches to Gain Passive Agreement To persuade my audience that there should be stricter safety standards on amusement park rides.
To persuade my audience that the United States should put greater emphasis on solar power to meet the country's energy needs.
To persuade my audience that a balanced-budget amendment should be added to the U.S. Constitution. Speeches to Gain Immediate Action To persuade my audience to give time to ESSO.
To persuade my audience to vote in the next student election.
To persuade my audience to begin a regular exercise program. Need- Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
Plan-If there is a problem, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
Practicality-Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the city council should not pass legislation merging the police and fire departments.
Central Idea: Merging the police and fire departments is neither necessary nor practical.
I. Merging the police and fire departments is neither necessary nor practical.
Under the current system, the police department had developed a reputation for excellence that has made it a model for departments in other cities.
The fire department is equally well-respected for doing its job quickly and efficiently. Cupcakes
Exeter Cupcakes, Lamps, Hat, Books, Pictures
Hammer, Cups, Happiness, Sandwiches, Clocks
Pencils, Phones, Toothbrushes, Scissors, Buttons
Dogs, Newspaper, Printers, College, Exeter Problem-Cause-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that action is required to deal with the problem of childhood obesity.
Central idea: Childhood obesity is a serious problem that can be controlled by changes in diet and exercise.
A. Childhood obesity is a major problem in the United States.
A. Childhood obesity continues to grow at a rapid pace.
B. Obesity is producing serious health problems among children.
B. There are two major causes of the increase in childhood obesity.
The first cause is dietary.
The second cause is physical inactivity. C. Solving the problem requires dealing with both causes.
Parents and schools must make sure that children are eating healthy foods.
Parents and schools must also make sure that children get enough exercise. Comparative Advantages Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that automakers should put greater emphasis on developing hydrogen fuel-cell cars than gas electric cars.
Central Idea: Unlike gas-electric cars, hydrogen cars run entirely without gasoline and do not emit air-polluting exhaust.
Unlike hybrid cars, hydrogen cars run entirely without gasoline.
Unlike hybrid cars, hydrogen cars do not emit any air-polluting exhaust. Monroe's Motivated Speech Attention- relate to the audience, show importance of topic, or tell a dramatic story.
Need-show there is a serious problem needing a change and have listeners concerned
Satisfaction- with a sense of need, provide a solution to the problem
Visualization-with your plan, visualize the benefits and show listeners how they will profit from the policy
Action- once the audience is convinced, tell the audience what you want the them to do and how to do it Conclusion Persuasion is the ability to change people's beliefs or actions.
You are an advocate for a particular cause.
Make it a mental dialogue.
Questions of Fact- make people accept the facts.
Questions of Value- you have to justify your opinion with valued judgement.
Questions of Policy- passive agreement or immediate action.
Make sure your objective is ethically sound and use ethical methods to persuade.