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Brookfields 4 lenses
Transcript of Brookfields 4 lenses
What is a critical Incident?
What is a critical incident?
By looking at these incidents using a conceptual framework (such as Brookfield's Four Lenses), it allows the incidents to be made critical. By making them critical it allows us, as well as the teacher, to reflect upon the incident alongside theoretical support.
Brookfeilds four lenses
Brookfield and Preskill (2012) suggest Brookfields four lenses a situation can be viewed through the student, are own personal view as learners, a colleague, for example a teacher and the theoretical perspective.
What is reflection?
Jasper (2003:1) explains reflection is a way in which learners reflect and learn from their experiences.
The importance of critical incident analysis:
The importance of a critical incident analysis is it enables the teacher to reflect on the incident, it could be misinterpreted as focusing on the things that went wrong.
- McGrane and Lofthouse (2010:169)
A critical incident is the observations and assessment of the on going occurrences of what goes on in the classroom. It generally focus's on one particular incident that has happened which is then analyzed and made critical.
- Veal and Anderson (2011:14)
-Reception/Yr 1 mixed PE Class.
-Taught by Specialist PE Teacher.
-Class Teacher supporting lesson.
-Specialist PE Teacher told children to throw the ball and whichever hand they were throwing with to put the other leg in front.
-class teacher interrupted lesson by going around telling children they were doing it with the wrong hand as they write with their left/right hand so that's the hand they throw with too.
The 4 Lenses...
The Theoretical Lens...
-Mid-line development not fully developed until the age of 7. Can have equal strength in both sides but still have a dominant side- known as ambidextrous. Connell & McCarthy (2013)
-A high number of people are ambidextrous and have preferred sides according to the activity. Martin & Fabes (2009)
-Ambidexterity is more common in children with Specific Learning Difficulties and Dyslexia. -Blythe (2009)
A football assessment called inter form
Not all students involved in both games
Students organize the game
Its outside on the playing field, with 3 teachers on duty.
One student ran off to the other side of the field
On approaching the girls they had no idea why she had ran off
approaching the student that had ran off and heard her side
the teacher then took over
Pupils Lens- That they did it wrong.
Teachers Lens- Throw with the hand they write with to be more successful
Autobiographical Lens- they were not given instruction as to what hand probably for a reason.
The autobiographical lens - it was dangerous and the girl could of ran off anywhere, assessment also could of been delayed.
Practitioners Lens - The obvious questions, whats happened? Wheres she going? The teacher couldn't leave her pupils. Is the pupil attention seeking?
Pupils Lens - Feeling uninvolved, maybe not enjoying the game or just not the competitive type, didn't want to play. Other students may have been leaving her out.
Theoretical Literature Lens
Due to the large amounts of students, if the assessment is games based pupils will have to sit on the side lines and teachers will have to find ways to keep those students involved, Brown (2004) suggests teachers find ways to keep students motivated and encourage them.
Kelley et al (2007:51) states that it is up to the teacher to keep students actively involved in the game. in this case it was by keeping them cheering and involved in what was going on.
Lund and Kirk, (2010:14) suggest that when assessments are being done not all students always participate the way the teachers intend them to.
Background of the Incident...
The theoretical lens...
The Teachers' View-
-Student is always disruptive.
-Can't go outside as it is wet.
The Pupils View- He didn't see why they were not allowed on the field as it wasn't properly explained to him. He didn't like playing football inside.
The Autobiographical View-
-It wasn't explained correctly why they were not allowed outside.
-Teacher should have pulled the child aside to explain calmly he needed to calm down.
-Warnings should have been followed up with actions.
Whitehouse (2013) - varying vocal tone and volume helps to control the situation.
-stating rules in a positive manner.
-must be consistent with rules for it to be effective.
Johnson (1999) - time outs give a time to cool off.
Blythe, S. G. (2009) Attention, Balance and Coordination: The A.B.C. of Learning Success. Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.
Brookfield, S and Preskill, S (2012). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms . 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p20-30.
Brown, S. (2004). Assessment for Learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. 1 (5), p81-89.
Connell, G. and McCarthy, C. (2013) A Moving Child Is a Learning Child: How the Body Teaches the Brain to Think (Birth to Age 7). Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing.
Jasper, M (2003). Beginning Reflective Practice. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. p1-10.
Johnson, R. (1999). Time-out: Can it control misbehaviour? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 70 (8), 32-34, 42.
Kelley, D, Lindberg, J, Walker-Wied, J and Beckwith, K (2007). Common-Sense Classroom Management for Special Education Teachers, Grades 6-12. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. p50-51.
Lund, J and Kirk, M (2010). Performance-based Assessment for Middle and High School Physical Education. 2nd ed. Leeds: Human Kinetics. p10-15.
Martin, C. L. and Fabes, R. (2009) Discovering Child Development. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
McGrane, J and Lofthouse, R (2010). Developing Outstanding Teaching and Learning: Creating a culture of professional development to improve outcomes. London: Optimus Education eBooks. p160-170.
Shimon, J. M. (2011) Introduction to Teaching Physical Education: Principles and Strategies. Leeds: Human Kinetics.
Veal, M and Anderson, W (2011). Analysis of Teaching and Learning in Physical Education. London: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p10-15.
Whitehouse, K. (2013) 'Teaching to Promote Positive Behavior.' in Capel, S. and Breckon, P. A Practical Guide to Teaching Physical Education in the Secondary School. Oxon: Routledge.
-field unsuitable to use due to heavy rain.
-student disruptive from very start of lesson because of this.
-continually messing around, not listening and being unsafe.
-told to take a time out to calm down and had explained to him why he had to sit out.
-disrupted majority of the lesson due to ongoing behavior.