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Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD
Dianna Meyeron 28 February 2013
Transcript of Physical Disabilities, Health Impairments, and ADHD
A) Orthopedic- Skeletal System (Bones, Joints,Limbs, and Associated Muscles)
B) Neuromotor- Damage to the CNS that affects the ability to move, use, feel or control parts of the body.
2) Other Health Impairments- Limited strength, vitality, or alertness
This category includes diseases and special health conditions that affect a child's educational activities and performance
Ex. Cancer, Diabetes, ADHD
* "A severe orthopedic impairment adversely affects a child's educational performance." FACTS! Physical Disabilities and Health Conditions Can be...
1) Congenital (Born With)
3) Chronic (Long-Lasting, Most Often Permanent)
EX. Cerebral Palsy
4) Acute (Limited Duration)
EX. Pneumonia Prevalence 1) Diverse Findings
Sexson and Dingle in 2001 found chronic medical conditions affect up to 20% of school age children
Increase from 1.8% in 1960 to 7% in 2004
2) In 2005-2006: 62,618 children between 6-21 received special education services under orthopedic impairments. (1%)
557,121 were served under other health impairments (9.3%)
* Low numbers are accounted for two reasons:
1) Children with chronic impairments don't adversely affect education, so don't qualify for special education services.
2) Physical and Health Impairments occur with a combination of other disabilities so counted under other categories. Types of Physical Disabilities and Health Conditions 1) Cerebral Palsy
2) Spina Bifida
3) Muscular Dystrophy
4) Spinal Cord Injuries
8) Cystic Fibrosis
10) ADHD Cerebral Palsy Disorder of voluntary movement and posture
Most prevalent physical disability in school aged children
Results from lesion to the brain or an abnormality of brain growth
Paralysis, extreme weakness, lack of coordination, involuntary convulsions, other motor disorders
Can be treated, not cured, not a disease, fatal, contagious or inherited
Most effectively managed through cooperation of Physicians, Teachers, OT"s, PT's, Communication Specialists, Counselors
Regular Exercise and Careful Positioning in the classroom Classifications 1) Monoplegia
4) Quadriplegia 5) Paraplegia
Hemiplegia 1) Hypertonia: Contracted Muscles, 50-60% of cases,
2) Athetosis: Large, Irregular, Twisting Movements they can't control. 20% of cases
3) Ataxia: Poor Sense of Balance and Hand Use, 1-10% of cases
4) Hypotonia: Weak, Floppy Muscles, with low levels of motor activity Muscle Tone and Quality of Movement MOVE Systematic Program for Teaching Walking and Functional
Mobility Skills to Students with Cerebral Palsy Spina Bifida Vertebrae do not enclose spinal cord, causing part of spinal cord and nerves that normally control muscles and feelings in lower part of body fail to develop normally
Spina Bifida Occulta and Meningocele are mild and don't usually cause any loss of function
Myelomeningocele is most common and serious Myelomeningocele:
1) 6 in 10,000 live births
2) Affects girls more than boys.
3) 80-90% develop Hydrocephalus (fluid in the brain) Characteristics:
1) Some Degree of Paralysis to lower limbs
2) Lack full control of bladder and bowel functions
3) Good Use of Arms and Upper Body
4) Walk with braces, crutches, or walkers (Wheelchairs for longer distances) Muscular Dystrophy There are 40 different inherited diseases marked by progressive atrophy (wasting away) of body's muscles.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is Most Common and Only Affects Boys Characteristics:
1) Muscle Weakness seen between ages 2-6
2) Difficulty running and climbing stairs
3) Unusual Gait, protruding stomach and hollow back
4) Large Calf Muscles
5) By age 10-14 child loses ability to walk Treatment:
1) Focus on working with unaffected muscles as long as possible
2) No Treatment or Cure
3) Fatal in adolescence or young adulthood
4) Teachers should be careful not to lift a child by arms in fear of dislocation.
5) Learning and Teaching how to cope in schools Lesion to the Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injuries Caused By:
1) Penetrating Injury (Gunshot)
2) Stretching of the vertebral column (Whiplash)
3) Fracture of the Spinal Cord
4) Compression of Spinal Cord (Diving Accident)
1) Motor Vehicle Accidents (38.5%)
2) Acts of Violence (24.5%)
3) Falls (21.8%)
4) Sports (7%) Facts and Treatment:
1) The higher the injury on the cord and the more the
injury cuts through entire cord, greater the paralysis
2) 78% of cases are males from ages 16-30
3) Rehab involves physical therapy, use of adaptive devices for mobility and independent living, and psychological support Epilepsy When Seizures occur chronically and repeatedly.
A seizure is a disturbance of movement, sensation, behavior, and/or consciousness caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain Characteristics:
1) Not a disease and only constitutes a disorder while
seizure is in progress.
2) 3% of population prone to seizures, 1% have epilepsy
3) The cause of epilepsy in 30 % of cases is from among at least 50 different conditions known to result in seizure activity
4) Can occur at any stage of life, but mostly begins at childhood Types:
1) Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Formally Grand Mal)
* Muscles become stiff, lose consciousness, fall to floor,
entire body shakes, saliva, lasts 2-3 minutes
2) Absence Seizure (Formally Petit Mal)
*Less severe and more frequent where there is a brief loss of consciousness
3) Complex Partial Seizure (Psychomotor)
* Brief period of inappropriate and purposeless activity, conscious but not aware of actions
4) Simple Partial Seizure
*Jerking with no loss of consciousness, don't physically restrain Treatment:
1) Medication can control 50% of cases and reduce frequency
in other 20-30%
2) Teachers can help physicians and parents describe the seizure characteristics that happen in the classroom. Diabetes 1) Chronic Disorder of metabolism that effects 20.8 million children and adults in the U.S.
2) Can be detected early by signs of thirst, headaches, weight loss, frequent urination, and cuts that take a while to heel
3) The body can't get enough energy from food Type 1 Diabetes
1) Insufficient Insulin
2) The person has to inject insulin everyday
3) Follow a specific and regular diet
4) Exercise Programs are suggested Type 2 Diabetes:
1) This is the most common, which results from insulin resistance
and relative insulin deficiency.
2) Occurs in overweight children and adults. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
1) Caused by too much insulin, high level of exercise, missed meal
2) Symptoms include: Faintness, Dizziness, Blurred Vision, Drowsiness, Nausea
3) Give some form of concentrated sugar Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)
1) Too Little Insulin
2) Gradual Onset
3) Symptoms include: Fatigue, Thirst, Dry and Hot Skin, Deep and
Labored Breathing, Excessive Urination, Fruity-Smelling Breath
4) Contact Nurse or Doctor Asthma 1) Chronic Lung Disease characterized by episodic bouts of wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing.
2) Attacks are started from allergens, irritants, exercise, emotional stress.
3) Most common lung disease of children with a prevalence of 7-10% of school aged children.
4) Cause not known and can be controlled by medication.
5) Asthma is the leading cause of absenteeism in school. Cystic Fibrosis 1) Genetic Disease in which the body's exocrine glands excrete a thick mucus that can block the lungs and parts of digestive system.
2) Malnutrition and Poor Growth, with an importance of consuming enough calories
3) Not sure how it functions and no known cure (Median age of survival is 37 years)
4) Can Lead Active Lives
5) Physiotherapy is used daily for children, where the chest is thumped and vibrated to dislodge mucus HIV/ AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) HIV:
1) The Cause of AIDS
2) Found in Bodily Fluids
3) Transmitted through sexual contact and blood to blood
4) 40 Million people Worldwide Carry HIV AIDS:
1) Can't resist and fight off infections because of a
breakdown in immune system.
2) Death occurs, no cure or vaccine Schools:
1) Can't ban a child with HIV or AIDs unless deemed a direct health risk.
2) Parents are not required to inform the school their child has HIV.
3) Universal Precaution: Standard Safety Techniques that interupt chain of infection spread by blood and bodily fluids. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
Children who consistently exhibit the combination of attention deficit and hyperactivity Diagnoses:
1) ADHD, combined type (55%)
2) ADHD, predominantly inattentive type (27%)
3) ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (18%)
*No valid, independent test of ADHD Prevalence:
1) 3-5% of all school-age children (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
2) Increase in Other Health Impairments when IDEA included ADHD
3) Boys are 4 times as likely to be diagnosed than girls Causes:
1) Some consider it a neurologically based disorder, but
no clear and consistent evidence links brain damage or dysfunction to behavioral characteristics of ADHD.
2) Causes are not well understood and differ from child to child Treatment:
1) Drug Therapy: Prescription stimulant is most common intervention for children with ADHD. In 2000 is was estimated 3 million children were receiving drug treatment.
* Side effects include: Insomnia, decreased appetite, headaches, weight loss, decrease of positive affect, and irritability
2) Behavioral Intervention: Applied Behavior Analysis provides teachers and parents with practical strategies for teaching and living with children with ADHD.
* These Include: Positive Reinforcement for on-task behavior, modifying assignments and instructional activities to promote success, and gradually teaching self-control.
*Teachers can restructure the environment, provide frequent opportunities to actively respond, provide differential consequences for child behavior
3) Teach Self -Control General Characteristics of Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments So varied, attempting to describe each one is nearly impossible 1) Many students achieve about grade level expectations, some even considered gifted, but as a whole children with physical disabilities or health impairments function below grade level expectations. This is due to prolonged absences because of medical treatment.
2) Students with Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments perform below average on social-behavior skills. They have a hard time coping with disability, can't maintain peer relationships or have a feeling of belonging when they have to frequently leave the classroom for therapeutic and health care routines.
3) Two Variables affecting Educational Performance
a) Age of Onset:
b) Visibility Educational Approaches In the U.S., special Education of children with Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments have been around for 100 years. Teaming and Related Services;
1) Physical Therapists
2) Occupational Therapists
* Two main team members
3) Speech-Language Pathologists
4) Adapted Physical Educators
5) Recreation Therapists
6) School Nurses
9) Orientation and Mobility Specialists
10) Biomedical Engineers
11) Health Aides
12) Counselors and Medical Social Workers Environmental Modifications:
1) Paper Cup Dispensers by drinking fountain
2) Move Class or activity to accessible part of building
3) Soft- Tip Pens
4) Change desk and table heights
5) Proved a wooden pointer to reach upper buttons of elevator buttons
6) Written and spoken responses Works Cited Heward, W. L. (2009). Exceptional children: an introduction to special education (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Assistive Technology, Animal Assistance, Special Health Care Routines, Independence and Self-Esteem