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Copy of Lev Vygotsky
Transcript of Copy of Lev Vygotsky
-Child Development Cultural Historical Psychology Developmental psychology Child Development Vygotsky investigated child development and the important roles of cultural mediation and interpersonal communication. He observed how higher mental functions developed through these interactions also represented the shared knowledge of a culture. This process is known as internalization. Vygotsky focused on the child-in-context acting in a situation or event as the smallest unit of study. Vygotsky defined "context" as a child’s culture and how it is expressed. Further, the child is continually acting in social interactions with other people. Vygotsky argued that a lack of cultural context distorts our view of development and that it can lead us to look at causes of behavior as residing within the child rather than within their culture. Vygotsky's most important contribution concerns the inter-relationship of language development and thought. This concept, explored in Vygotsky's book Thought and Language, (alternative translation: Thinking and Speaking) establishes the explicit and profound connection between speech (both silent inner speech and oral language), and the development of mental concepts and cognitive awareness. Vygotsky described inner speech as being qualitatively different from normal (external) speech. Although Vygotsky believed inner speech developed from external speech via a gradual process of internalization, with younger children only really able to "think out loud," he claimed that in its mature form inner speech would be unintelligible to anyone except the thinker, and would not resemble spoken language as we know it (in particular, being greatly compressed). Hence, thought itself develops socially. Zone of proximal development... "Zone of proximal development" (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that a child can complete. The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently (also referred to as the child’s actual developmental level). The upper limit is the level of potential skill that the child is able to reach with the assistance of a more capable instructor. Constructivism Behaviorism Vygotsky's Circle Gestaltism Scaffolding 1) Development always precedes learning (e.g., constructivism): children first need to meet a particular maturation level before learning can occur. Definition: 2) Learning and development cannot be separated but instead occur simultaneously (e.g., behaviorism): essentially, learning is development. Definition: 3) learning and development are separate but interactive processes (e.g., gestaltism): one process always prepares the other process, and vice versa. Definition: Scaffolding is a concept closely related to the idea of ZPD, although Vygotsky never actually used the term. Scaffolding is changing the level of support to suit the cognitive potential of the child. Over the course of a teaching session, a more skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s potential level of performance. More support is offered when a child is having difficulty with a particular task and, over time, less support is provided as the child makes gains on the task. Ideally, scaffolding works to maintain the child’s potential level of development in the ZPD. Definition: a theory of learning and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways that people create meaning of the world through a series of individual constructs. also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do—including acting, thinking, and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment. is a theory of mind and brain of the Berlin School; the operational principle of gestalt psychology is that the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies. is a learning process designed to promote a deeper learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals. -If "historians and clinical psychologists" work together, we may be able to substantially change our understanding of "Vygotsky's clinical method of rehabilitation".
-Over the years, the Vygotsky Circle acquired numerous individuals and grew as a result of interest, which lead to ongoing empirical research.
-Vygotsky Circle is indicative of how a worldwide collaborative project, such as this, is reflective of the continuous "quest for the integrative human, social and behavioral science". This group of promising individuals shows us the strength that exists in numbers, and how research in any field is a worldwide collaboration. What is the Significance of the Vygotsky Circle? empirical research: integrative human, social and behavioral science: research on the search for knowledge Why is Lev's research so important? Explores the cultural nature of human conduct and its evolution Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." Vygotsky has also developed a socio-cultural approach to cognitive development.