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Evaluating Ad Effectiveness Presentation
Transcript of Evaluating Ad Effectiveness Presentation
Overview About the Author Purpose of paper Summary About the author
About the article
Evaluating the article
Weaknesses and suggestions for improvement (9)
Steuart Henderson Britt:
Evaluating advertising by objectives
To what extent do agencies know whether their campaigns are successful?
To what extent do they set specific measurable objectives?
To what extent do they measure “proofs of success” against objectives?
Therefore, the author’s belief or premise is that an ad’s or a campaign’s effectiveness is best evaluated by measuring results against set objectives. I agree with his ideas Author: Steuart H. Britt Lucas, D. B., & Lucas, S. H. (1963). Measuring advertising effectiveness. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Steuart Henderson Britt (1969). Are so-called successful advertising campaigns really successful?' Journal of Advertising Research, 9(2). Educated in psychology
Professor of advertising and marketing
Editor of Journal of Marketing for 10 years
Authored and edited many books and articles Deep interest in Consumer Behavior
Previously wrote a book on the article’s
About the Article Knowledge of effectiveness Objective-setting Evaluating objectives to measure effectiveness Problem: Subject area:
Research Method Analysis of 135 ‘successful’ U.S campaigns by 40 agencies
Sample source: booklet by AnnonsbyrS (Swedish ad agency)
Research questions for analysis of each campaign:
Did the agency set objectives specific enough to be measured?
Did the agency measure campaign effectiveness by clearly stating how the campaign fulfilled the previously-set objectives?
Did (a) size of agency and (b) product classification affect how specific objectives are and how results match objectives. Presented by: Keji Adebeshin What constitutes an Objective? Britt offers 4 operational criteria: Basic message Audience
Specific criteria to be used later on to measure the success of the campaign Key Findings (Research #1): Setting Objectives * Basic message * Audience * Intended effect(s) * Specific measurement criteria 4 major deficiencies in setting objectives… Key Findings (Research #2): Evaluating By Objectives Out of the 135 campaigns analyzed… 3 major deficiencies in evaluating by objectives… “Although both readership and inquiries may be indicative of consumer attention and awareness, it cannot be demonstrated that a change in image necessarily results” (p. 29). Example: Unrelated measurement Campaign objectives:
To convince mothers that Welch's Grape Juice is the best fruit drink they can serve their children: (a) Because it is good for them; (b) Because it is the best-tasting of all fruit drinks.
Proof of success:
Despite the aggressive competition from the scores of competitive brands of fruit drinks, Welch's has not only held its position but shown consistent improvement in sales year after year.
My Opinion... Author's Conclusions Because most measures didn’t relate with objectives, the authors concluded that not all ad agencies really know whether their campaigns were successful or not.
The research “shows the need for emphasis on the setting of specific objectives in advertising campaigns, and an even greater need for agencies to use their campaign objectives as means of measuring campaign success or failure” (p. 31).
Only when he (marketer) knows what he is intending to do can he know when and if he has accomplished it” (p. 31). Identifies issue but no suggestions on appropriate measures for objectives or references to where such info can be found
(e.g. if they measured attitude change using sales report, what appropriate measures could they have used?)
The sample omitted media and creative analysis. It’s unknown whether the agencies carried out appropriate measurements for media and creative objectives. This may affect effectiveness as they contribute to campaign objectives.
Recommendation: examine media/creative evaluations (e.g. channel effectiveness, copy effectiveness, etc.).
Bias 1: held the belief that ‘the only effective’ way of measuring advertisement is to measure objectives and doesn’t present opposing views
Bias 2: recommends that managers should make the decision but doesn’t give reasons why
Only 2 passing references to previous works on evaluating by objectives. Not enough references to solidify findings.
No literature review
Doesn’t suggest areas for further/future research or discussion
Didn’t identify article limitations Author’s characteristics of an ‘objective’ is subjective, seems incomplete, and not based on any reference to previous research Recommendation: Could have used DAGMAR model. Significance to Marketing a) Good positioning in literature
* ‘Measuring advertising results’: Hot topic in the 1900s marketing communications/management/psychology literature.
* But not much written on ‘measurement by objective’ but on pre-testing/forecasting, measuring sales, measuring recall/attitude/reach… but they don’t stress the importance of aligning objectives with evaluation like this paper
* Provides empirical proof: author uses real-life sample to prove a point, rather than based on speculations. Contributes to empirical information in those days.
* Although article is not widely-cited (Scholar – 19 results), subject matter is widely discussed today
b) Practical for business people (intended audience)
* Suggests agencies measure advertising results by objectives
* Suggests clients should also present specific objectives
* There’s more literature on measuring sales than other advertising objectives so this article has helped agencies and clients look beyond just sales (or other marketing objectives) to advertising objectives (that will ultimately drive sales)
* Advertising agencies and authors are continually researching and deliberating on objective-setting and correlated measurement of effectiveness.
* Although not in detail, Britt suggests that management/the client should decide what the advertising is expected to achieve (specific objectives). The agency can then include how to measure it.
Key Findings (Research #3): Size of Agency and Product Classification as variables Larger agencies tended to state specific objectives and measure them against success
There were no significant trends apparent in terms of product class and the specificity and fulfillment of campaign objectives
Example: Related measurement Campaign objectives:
To increase awareness and establish Aero Commander as the leading producer of a complete line of durable, quality aircraft.
Proof of success:
The first ad was published in January, 1967. Campaign will continue for nine months. Within four weeks after the first ad ran. Aero Commander received 1,330 inquiries answering the simple 'more information' offer mentioned in the copy. More impressive still, many of the letters were inquiries about the Jet Commander: a $750,000 product.
Professor Britt is knowledgeable in the field. He’d also co-published acclaimed book Measuring Advertising Effectiveness (1963). Sampling Sampling is not representative (qualitative-type research). But this is okay because:
Start of article:
“Although it would be extremely difficult to determine the extent to which the sample of 135 campaigns by the 40 agencies is a representative sample, the campaigns are indicative of what many American advertising agencies say they do in attempting to measure the success of their campaigns” (p. 25).
End of article:
“The answer is that most of the advertising agencies do not know whether their campaigns are successful or not.” (p. 31).
He was trying to prove that not all agencies in the U.S know and not that most agencies in the U.S do not know…
* Logical, easy to understand and follow in one read
* Writing style is appropriate for a variety of audiences
* Wording is neutral and objective
We know that not all agencies know how to: set specific measurable objectives and measure success against these objectives AND not all claimed successful campaigns may have been successful.
Problem: examining whether ‘successful’ campaigns are really successful
Method: sampling and analyzing a list of ‘successful’ campaigns THANK YOU! Article contributes to advertising literature at the time as it is one of the few to advocate for measuring advertising by objectives
Steuart Britt is a credible author so his ideas carry some weight
Holds that advertising is only effective if it meets its objectives
Subsequent works written on this matter
Proves research goals (not all agencies measure appropriately)
However, article lacks depth in terms of references, theories, sufficient sample information, and new knowledge (causing bias and slight inaccuracies)
Out of the 135 campaigns analyzed… Strength... Evaluating the article Strengths... Credibility Strong premise (supported by other works) “…the chief deficiency in advertising effectiveness is the failure to define advertising goals" (Colley, 1961, p. 878).
“There is no overall superior measurement of advertising effectiveness. There is no one perfect advertisement test. The selection of one test or a combination of tests depends on the specific aim or objective of a particular advertisement, and this specific aim need not be synonymous with the much more long- range objective of sales” (Mindak, 1956, p. 377).
“…Until a clear statement of specific advertising objectives is available, it is highly unlikely that they can be measured or achieved” (Twedt, 1965, p. 60). Mindak, W. A. (1956). A new technique for measuring advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 20(4), pp. 367-378.
Twedt, D. W. (1965). How can the advertising dollar work harder? Journal of Marketing, 29(2), pp. 60-62.
Colley, H. R. (1961). Defining advertising goals for measured advertising results. New York: Association of National Advertisers, Inc. Comprehension
Research questions answered
Problem matched research method Cited and strongly supported in:
Corkindale, D., & Kennedy, S. H. (November, 1974). The evaluation of advertising objectives (MCRC report No. 10). Cranfield, United Kingdom: Cranfield School Management Marketing Communications Research Centre
Corkindale, D. (1976). Setting objectives for advertising. European Journal of Marketing, 10(3), pp.109 – 126. Evaluating the article Weaknesses and suggestions for improvement... Colley, H. R. (1961). Defining advertising goals for measured advertising results. New York: Association of National Advertisers, Inc. I believe that:
* Measuring advertising results by objectives is required for accuracy and specificity
* Not all agencies at the time measured effectively or recognized measuring by (advertising) objectives
Majaro (1970) found the same results using sample from Europe. 70% of companies set marketing objectives instead of ad objectives and many measurement methods don’t correlate with objectives
Majaro, S. (1970, January). Advertising by objectives. Management Today, pp. 71-73.