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France and the Catholic Church- 1500's
Transcript of France and the Catholic Church- 1500's
- Virtually all countries in Europe struggled in one way or another in trying to cope with the changes coming about in the 16th and 17th centuries.
-France had political, social and economic tension made worse by religious division.
-Even competent rulers and officials had trouble governing France at this time. Social Problems France Economic Problems - rapid inflation
- falling wages
- high taxes
....but not enough revenue for the
king to do his job properly.
Taxes were actually collected by citizens, called "tax farmers", who were hired to collect the taxes for the government, while also paying them.
- There were three estates that divided the people -As in many other countries in Europe, 16th century France had a rising middle class unhappy because it had no political say
-Nobles were unhappy because they were gradually losing power and authority
-The upper middle-class
citizens helped raise large
sums of money to aid the
King and his wars, of course,
they paid little or nothing in
taxes to the Crown for their
support France and the Catholic Church
1500's The Henry's The War of the Three Henrys (1587-1589) was the eighth and final conflict in the series of civil wars in France known as the Wars of Religion.
- Fought between the royalists, led by Henry III of France; the Huguenots, led by the heir-presumptive Henry of Navarre; and the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise and funded and supported by Philip II of Spain. -French Protestants became known as Huguenots and were mostly Calvinists.
-French reformer John Calvin played an important role in the Protestant Reformation.
- Majority of the French population remained Catholic, but a substantial minority converted.
-Any person not Catholic in France, was a Huguenot.
- The French Reformed Church was formally established by John Calvin (1550).
- The term Huguenot is a term of unknown origins used to them. John Calvin
-Described as the “organizer of Protestantism"
because of his pastoral efforts in Strasbourg and Geneva.
-By working in Geneva, he was protected
from the Counter Reformation and was able to influence in not only Switzerland and other
countries, but also his native country, France.
*Geneva is in the French-speaking area of Switzerland and on the French border.
-Thus Calvin could easily promote the growth of Protestantism in France.
-Calvinism had significant appeal in France. -Northern Europe was protestant and southern Europe was catholic. France was in the middle, so catholic or protestant?
-Conflict between Protestants and Catholics for over 30 years
-The cycle of chaos and destruction where growing anarchy would steadily weaken the French government's power, thus allowing even more anarchy and so on
-Eight French religious wars with intermittent periods of peace, which made these wars & this period of French history confused, chaotic, and bloody (1562-1598)
-French people were tired of constant warfare and wished only for peace
-The French were willing to submit to the stronger rule of a king The Huguenots Roman Catholic Church -In 1500 the Roman Catholic Church was all powerful in western Europe
-did not tolerate any deviance from its teachings as any appearance of ‘going soft’ might have been interpreted as a sign of weakness which would be exploited
-relationship between people and church was essentially based on money DECLINE The opportunity for a different belief- Protestant WHY WAS IT POWERFUL -built up over the centuries
-relied on ignorance and superstition
-people believed they could only get to heaven via the church
-very few were willing to speak out against them as the consequences were too appalling to bear Wars of Religion The French Wars of Religion (1562–98)
is the name of a period of civil
infighting and military operations,
primarily fought between French Catholics
and Protestants (Huguenots). - conflict involved disputes between the House of
Bourbon and House of Guise (Lorraine), and both
sides received assistance from foreign sources. - Exact number of wars is still debated by
historians today. - First Estate was the clergy(priests, who ran both the Catholic church and some aspects of the country. Power to levy a 10% tax.
- Second Estate consisted of the nobility of France (royal family, except for the King. Did not have to pay taxes.
-Third Estate was everyone else, (peasant farmers to the bourgeoisie) 96% of France. House of Guises House of Bourbons Extremely Catholic Works for Spain also claimed "catholic" Henry Navarre -Previously king in the House of Guises, he then marries into the house of Bourbon
-Conflict erupts, however, when people consider the fact that he has married to a catholic princess while he is protestant.
-A protestant ruler in a supposed Catholic country causes many problems. Working for France It was 1572...at the wedding of Henry Navarre,the Protestant nobleman, and Marguerite de Valois, a Catholic princess. The bride's mother, Catherine de' Medici ordered for a massacre of the Protestants that joined the celebration along with Henry. Killing began and a blood bath was the result. This became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Compromise and Progress Edict of Nantes Made by Henry the 4th(Henry of Navarre)
1598: Granted some rights to Huguenots
- limited freedom of worship
- right to hold office/rule 200 towns already in the majority.
The concept of
"one king, one law, one religion"
was no longer in effect. Connections to the Novel Little-Endians vs. Big-Endians= Protestants vs. Catholics
the way they interpret the same text= Bible interpretation
Egg-cracking vs. worshiping God (no right or wrong way)
Accusations against neighboring island= French harboring Catholic exiles
Blefuscu= France Martin Luther -essentially began the Protestant Reformation
-nailed the 95 Theses to the door of a Catholic Church for all to see
-criticized the sale of indulgences
-most important and influential reformer, followed by John Calvin.... Martin Luther and his 95 Theses Discussion