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Transcript of Georgia History
Orange- Paleo Indians culture
Nomads - move from place to place
Paleo - Ancient ????
Domesticate - to make tame or to train.
Pelts - skin of animals
Wigwams - round shelter
Georgia's native american cultures
Early Native Americans
In this section, we will learn about Native American cultures that existed in Georgia before any Europeans ever landed.
Light Purple- Archaic Culture
Green- Woodland Culture
Purple- Mississippian Culture
Blue- Key Terms
Early european colonization
The primary reason for Spanish missions was to spread Catholicism (Christianity). The first Spanish mission that was a success in Georgia, or Guale (pronounced "wall-E"), was San Pedro Mocama. Spanish missions also were a means of introducing Native Americans to new forms of politics and economics (especially currency). They introduced them to the political system of the colonies in Florida.
The French tried to start a colony in the Carolinas, but failed. Queen Elizabeth I had Sir Walter Raleigh begin expeditions to colonize the New World. He colonized twice in the Carolinas, but was not successful. One colony actually disappeared! What happened is a mystery even today.
FUN FACT: Raleigh, North Carolina is named in Sir Walter's honor.
Early european colonization
In this section, we will learn about the Europeans that attempted to create colonies in the New World, and their interaction with Native Americans cultures.
Exploration & conquest
In 1492, Christopher Columbus was searching for an easier trade route from Europe to Asia (mainly India). He thought he found India, but it was actually islands arouns the Americas. He called the people that he met on these islands "Indians." After Christopher Columbus came to the "New World," so did many others. They were looking to spread their religion, find gold, and to be famous for their explorations. Their motivations were: "God, gold, and glory."
Early Spanish Exploration
8th Grade Social Studies Textbook
Georgia Its Heritage and Its Promise textbook (pg 191 "The Charter of 1732", pg 195-196 "Life In Early Georgia")
Georgia Its Heritage and Its Promise textbook (pg 193-195) "Savannah, The First Settlement"
Georgia Its History and Its Promise textbook (pg 190 "Reasons for Settling Georgia")
French Exploration & Colonization
Spanish Missions In GA (1568-1684)
In the 18th (and early 19th) centuries, French immigrants traveled to Georgia. Many were Huguenots, which were French Calvinists. There was an increasing number of French Catholic refugees in Georgia at the end of the 18th century. Their presence led to a stronger presence of the Catholic Church in this area.
Key for background Colors
Yellow = Exploration & Conquest
Blue = Early Spanish Exploration
Red = Early Spanish Missions in Georgia
Pink = French Exploration & Colonization
Light Pink = The Carolinas
Teal = Key Terms
Indians - The name that Christopher Columbus used for the people he met on the islands in the New World
Guale - The name the Spanish gave to Georgia, named after the chief of a tribe (pronounced "Wall-E")
Hueguenots - French Calvinists, sent to reform Christianity
In the spring of 1540, an army of Spanish soldiers commanded by Hernando de Soto marched through Georgia in search of riches. The journey crossed the Flint River. The impact of the de Soto expedition was that it caused the accidental introduction of European diseases. This resulted in massive population losses for Native Americans in these regions.
The Woodland Culture in GA was mainly located in north GA from 6,000 to 1,000BC. They made their food, shelter, and clothes from local game from the forest. They often lived in "wigwams." Wigwams are round shelters covered in bark. One family lived in each. They also lived in long houses, which are similar to what live in today. Multiple families lived together in them. Woodland Native Americans were hunter-gatherers, as during the Archaic culture. They hunted for large game, such as bison, bears, and deer. They also gathered corn, berries, and beans. They also developed their own crops. They were the first to use horticulture! They grew crops of pumpkin, squash, and watermelon. "Cry Ceremonies" were held if someone died. These lasted for 5 days, which was signified by 5 knots being tied on a piece of milkweed grass. each day a knot would be loosened.
Early Archaic people were hunters and gatherers who lived in small groups of about twenty to fifty people. They hunted deer, bears, turkey, and other local game. They collected fruits, seeds, and berries. They also caught turtles, fish, birds, and small game. By this time, they began to live in small homes.
Learn about Georgia in this way cool Prezi made by real 8th graders that live in GA!
The Missisippian Culture in mideastern and southeastern GA lasted from 800-1600 AD. They had some of the most complex societies in North America at that time. They grew most of their own food in small gardens using tools such as: axes, digging sticks, and fire. They spent most of their time outside. The Mississippian Native Americans had social rankings in their society. They made their villages from poles, grass, & mud.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Queen Elizabeth I
The Paleo-Indians are the first known people to live in America. Paleo means ancient. The Paleo-Indians lived mainly near marshes and lakes. They were nomads which means they moved from place to place. The Paleo Indians made
They ate any plants and animals they could find, like mammoths and bison. During this time period the ice age ended. People started to domesticate animals. Domesticate means "to make tame or to train."
Georgia in the trustee period
Reasons for settling in GA
People settled in Georgia because they could be a great protection for the other colonies north of Georgia. Another reason that people settled in Georgia is for the crops that could grow because of the nice climate. People also moved to Georgia for military defense reasons. Georgia was a buffer state between Florida and South Carolina. Another main reason that people colonized Georgia was for economical reasons. They believed that the fertile soil would be good for growing crops which would benefit the economy.
Royal colonies- a colony under the control of the king
Mercantilism- an economic policy in which a country exports more than it imports; colonies are expected to supply raw materials to the Mother country
Charter- a written document
Trustees- a person appointed to watch over a area
Militia- a person who inrolls part time in the military
Ally- a person, group or country who joins with another for a common intrest
Slavery- owning a person as property
Indentured servants- a person who works for passage to the New World
Pacifists- one who is against all fighting or violence
Malcontents- one who is not satisfied with the existing government
Artisans- a skilled craftsperson
Choosing the Colonists
Charter of 1732
Savannah, the first settLement
Life In Early Georgia
Twelve Trustees were at the meeting that discussed the making of the charter. They decided on the rights that the colonists would have in the colony during the Trustee Period. The charter established the Common Council. The Common Council was in charge of supervising the colony. The main idea of this charter and establishing a colony was for charity work. The motto of the council was "Non Sibi Sed Aliis" which translate in Latin to "not for self, but for others." The Trustees could not be paid because it was for charity, however they could hire employees.
The trustees made regulations with the reasons for founding the colony. The trustees paid for the passage for some to the new colony. Each male who went to Georgia to be a charity colonist would recieve fifty scres of land to farm. They also receive tools and a supply of food that can last them a year or two. The trustees made sure that men who could serve as a soldier is allowed to live on fifty acers on land; so women are not allowed to inherit the land. If men did not have a male child or heir, his land went back to the trustees to be given to another male. Settlers were not allowed to put their land up for sale or rent to borrow money. The trustees began to raise money for their charity and interview potential settlers.
Beginning a new life in Georgia was difficult. Georgia was nothing like Britain. The climate was hot and humid compared to the cool climate in Britain. Some of the settlers had never even heard of the animals in GA. They were exposed to disease transmitted by mosquitos, soemthing they didn't have in Britain.
Savannah was the first settlement in Georgia. The settlement of Georgia was lead by James Oglethorpe. In November 1732, the ship Ann brought chosen settlers to Savannah. Oglethorpe was good became good friends with the Yamacraw leader, Tomochichi. Tomochichi agreed to give the colony all the land along the coast from Savannah to Altamaha. After that William Bull and James Oglethorpe layed out the streets and squares of Savannah. Throughout the development of Savannah Tomochichi and Oglthorpe had many meetings. John and Mary Musgrove were their translaters. On February 12, 1733 Oglethorpe brought the settlers to the future Savannah. They put up tents and started to clear land to start the building of Savannah. This day is now know as Georgia Day.
Georgia in the Trustee period