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Genetics 7th Grade - Begoyan
Transcript of Genetics 7th Grade - Begoyan
by: Mr Begoyan
Page 29 in your Interactive Notebook
AVID: What makes me different than everyone else?
Born in 1822 in the Austrian Empire (modern Czech Republic).
He spent most of his adult life in a monastery as a monk.
At those times, monasteries contained and taught most of the knowledge in Europe.
During his time as a monk, Mendel tended a flowering pea garden.
Studying the peas, Mendel discovered what we now call the field of
is the study of
is the passing of traits of an organism from parent to offspring.
(and his experiments)
Mendel worked with peas because they were quick and easy to grow, came in different varieties, and were edible (monks had to eat!).
These plants have
genes (if they have, for example, color purple, all their offspring will always have the color purple, no exceptions).
Traits that Mendel studied in peas.
Who is Gregor Mendel?
The passing of traits from parent to offspring is called:
Genetics is the study of ____________
What organism did Mendel study (and consequently eat...)?
Why were peas a good experimental organism?
What does "true breeding" mean?
In his experiments, Mendel crossed a true breeding
plant with a true breeding
The resulting offspring were 100%
Mendel knew that both plants contributed genetic information, so why were there no
Mendel's reasoning was that traits from one parent may be more
than that of the other parent.
Traits are controlled by genes.
are different parts of a DNA that code for a specific trait
(like song tracks on a CD, but imagine that a CD had 100000+ tracks).
Each plant received a version of the trait/gene from each parent.
We call these different versions
DNA is broken down into small parts called _______.
Different versions of a trait/gene are called_______.
Genes and Alleles
Each gene/trait has at least two different versions of itself, we call these different versions
Each gene will have a
alleles are strong, and will block recessive alleles if they are ever together.
alleles are weak and shy, they will hide in the presence of dominant alleles.
Since each gene/trait must have at least two alleles, you can have three combinations:
trait expressed (
Traits that have the same type of alleles (
) are called
(Homo = same).
Traits that have the different type of alleles (
) are called
(Hetero = different).
Phenotype vs Genotype
is the expression of the trait/gene that we can observe in the world.
is the specific combination of alleles.
: In eye color,
is the dominant trait,
A person with
eyes can be homozygous dominant (two dominant
alleles) or heterozygous (
allele). You would never be able to tell them apart, they both have the same
Each gene/trait must have at least ____ alleles
What are the two different types of alleles?
Will the recessive allele express itself if a dominant allele is present?
Can a heterozygous combination ever express the recessive trait? Why?
How are phenotype and genotype different?
Inheritance, Pedigrees, and Punnett Squares
To understand inheritance (passing of traits from parent to offspring), scientists use a pair of tools:
help us model possible genotypes and phenotypes of any given trait from two parents.
Scientists use single letter abbreviations for alleles.
A capital letter designates the dominant allele, while a lower case letter designates the recessive allele (same letter must be used).
For example: We are looking at the color of the pea plant flowers.
is dominant and
I can designate
as the dominant allele, while
is the recessive.
shows and tracks traits that were inherited by members of a family tree.
On a Pedigree, males are represented by squares, females by circles.
Individuals who have the trait, are shaded in.
Lines connect members of a family.
Mendel's Laws of Heredity
Mendel created 2 laws:
1. Mendel's laws of independent assortment
2. Mendel's laws of segregation
-They essentially state that every trait, and every version of the trait (alleles), can move independently of each other.
-In short, we can get an incredible combination of traits and trait types.
What is a Punnett Square?
In Pedigrees, males are represented with ________, while female are represented by _________.
In Punnett Squares, capital letters represent the _______ allele, while lower case letters represent the _______ allele.
What is a Pedigree?
In Pedigrees, individuals that are shaded in represent _________.
To set up a Punnett square, draw a 2x2 box.
The alleles of one parent are placed on the left of the box, the alleles of the other parent are placed on the top of the box (doesn't matter which parent goes where).
You then cross match to obtain the resulting combinations.
Gene 1 = Hair color
Homework on page 28
Using visuals, tell me about
, what are
and what are