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Transcript of Reproduction
- two parents contribute a sex cell to the new organism. Half the genes come from each parent making a unique combination of genetic material.
- when an egg is fertilized by a sperm cell. A new cell called a zygote is formed with the full set of genetic material. Once the zygote has the full DNA code it can grow and develop using mitosis.
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
1. Increases genetic variation
2. variation increases the chance that at least some offspring will survive environmental changes.
Methods of Asexual Reproduction
- When a parent cell divides into two making an identical copy of itself. This is how prokaryotes reproduce.
- when an organism develops tiny buds on its body. The buds grow until they form new full size organisms identical to the parent. This is the result of mitosis. Yeasts and hydras do this.
Advantages of doing Both
1. Quickness and large numbers of asexual reproduction.
2. Better chance of survivability with genetic variation.
- reproduce asexually by parthenogenesis. A female produces young without fertilization.
- can reproduce by fragmentation. This is where a new worm can form from one segment that falls off of the parent worm.
- can reproduce asexually by regeneration. Even a small part of the starfish can grow a new organism. Corals, anemones, and sponges also have this capability.
Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
1. quick - can adjust to change quickly
2. favorable traits guaranteed to be passed on.
3. All offspring can reproduce. Not limited to females.
4. Can produce lots of offspring.
- Where one organism produces one or more new organisms that are identical to itself.
The only source of variation is through mutation.
More Methods of Asexual Reproduction
- a specialized cell that can survive harsh conditions. Spores wait for the right conditions to form into a new organism. Fungi reproduce this way.
- For some plants new plants can grow from roots, stems, leaves, or runners. This happens through mitosis similar to budding.