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Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

An attempt to reconcile contradictions in current theories of motivation and to develop an outline of an integral model
by

Cornelis de Brabander

on 24 March 2014

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Transcript of Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

Towards a unified theory
of task-specific motivation

Self-responsible learning
development and clarification of learning needs
design and execution of effective courses of action
learning action
learning need
fulfills
clarifies
design
process management
level of execution
mental simulation
communicative simulation
enacted simulation
actual execution
Cornelis J. de Brabander
Rob L. Martens
Open University of the Netherlands
& Leiden University
start in revolutionary 1970's
study on self-responsible learning
self-determination theory as theoretical foundation?
Personal history
... inherent satisfaction from the activity itself ...?
Intrinsic motivation
... separable consequences ...?
Basic innate needs...?
Focus
task-specific motivation
motivation in foresight
Self-determination theory (
SDt
), Deci & Ryan
Flow theory (
Ft
), Csikszentmihalyi
Person-Object theory of Interest (
POtI
), Krapp
Social-Cognitive theory (
SCt
), Bandura
Expectancy*Value theory of Achievement Motivation (
EVtAM
), Wigfield & Eccles
Theory of Planned Behavior (
tPB
), Ajzen & Fishbein
Contributions
Self-Determination theory
autonomy
competence
relatedness
intrinsic motivation
person
Social-Cognitive theory
behavior
outcome
efficacy
expectations
outcome
expectations
Expectancy*Value theory of Achievement Motivation
Theory of Planned Behavior
Flow theory
challenge
low
high
competence
high
low
boredom
flow
apathy
anxiety
Person-Object theory of Interest
feeling-related valences
value-related valences
Comparison of affective and cognitive components in different theories
Theory
"hot" notions
SCt
SDt
EVtAM
POtI
Ft
tPB
intrinsic motivation
intrinsic value
feeling-related valence
flow
affective judgements
outcome expectancies
"cold" notions
extrinsic motivation
attainment value, utility value, cost
value-related valence
importance to future goals
evaluative judgements
person
situation
actualized state of interest

Relationship between affective and cognitive components
Role of approach and avoidance motivation
Identification of task-specific conditional factors
Integration
SDt definitions
"Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence."
"Extrinsic motivation is a construct that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome."
Conceptual analysis
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classical definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
not a unitary construct, but composite of several elements
cognitively distinguishable
as soon as they are identified as such, they appear as extrinsic motivators
Inherent satisfactions
oppositional
additive
independent
Possible relations
between affective and cognitive components
the effort and exertion tennis requires
the feeling of placing a ball exactly at a particular spot on the court
putting one's opponent on the wrong leg
being part of a team
...
What you may like about playing tennis
satisfaction implies a need and the satisfaction of that need is separable from the activity proper.

therefore

separable consequences presumably play always a role in motivation
subconscious motives (goal contagion)
illustrative examples
Separable consequences
gifted piano player
as adolescent spent hours and hours of piano practice
Case of M. N. from Leiden, The Netherlands
realized as an adult that his effort in part stemmed from the motive to impress women with his fabulous play
separable consequence par excellence
Profit from trading on the stock exchange
Affective and cognitive components of motivation
are simultaneous, but disparate events
are not necessarily opposed, but can have opposite effects
two separate regulation systems supported by different brain structures:
"reward" or "motivation" system: roughly subcortical regions
"cognitive control": cortical regions
that can be out of sync
Neuro-imaging research
Empirically all kinds of relations between affect and cognition are found:
positive, when activities are
both pleasurable and profitable
neither pleasurable nor profitable
negative, when activities are:
profitable, but not pleasurable
pleasurable, but not profitable
Empirical observations
nothing stops a share broker to like his job very much
What combination would intuitively provide the highest level of motivation?
pleasurable, but not profitable
pleasurable and profitable
Fourfold classification of valences
positive valence > approach motivation
negative valence > avoidance motivation

positive negative
cognitive

affective

Conditionally relevant estimates, judgements, beliefs, etc. need to be distinguished in personal and contextual. Applies to
competence
autonomy
(relatedness)
cognitive valence
Person and context
Combined result of:
sense of personal competence
the extent to which one estimates that one is capable of successfully performing an action scheme
perceived external support
the extent to which one expects the context to facilitate the performance of an action scheme
Feasibility expectation
Sense of personal competence is presumably more important than perceived external support
sense of personal autonomy
the extent to which one experiences oneself as the origin of choosing and performing an action scheme
perceived freedom of action
the extent to which one experiences the freedom to make decisions about the selection and performance of an action scheme
Autonomy
Sense of freedom of action is presumably relevant to the extent to which it reinforces a sense of personal autonomy
In principle distinguishable in:
sense of personal relatedness
the extent in which one personally feels connected to other people in the context of the action scheme
perceived relatedness
the estimate of the connectedness between the people who belong to the context of the action scheme
Relatedness
in practice only sense of personal relatedness is relevant
on the group level sense of personal relatedness is an aggregate
personal cognitive valence
the total value one expects to gain for oneself from the performance of an action scheme
non-personal cognitive valence
the total value for other people or entities beside the person that is expected from performing an action scheme
Cognitive valence
Affective valence has no contextual aspect
Unified model of
task-specific motivation
(UMTM)
Interaction of valences
positive
affective
valences
negative
affective
valences
positive
cognitive
valences
negative
cognitive
valences
valence expectation
competence
autonomy
relatedness
subjective norm
Task-specific factors that influence valence
Unified Model of
Task-specific Motivation
(UMTM)
Relation between affect and cognition:
interacting but independent

valence expectation
cognitive
valences
affective
valences
you may never know whether they play a role in task motivation
they do not by definition impair motivation
Feelings about activities and thoughts about (the value of) their outcomes originate from different processes

thoughts about outcome values
cognitive regulation
active reflection

feelings about doing
affective regulation
automatic response
Kees.deBrabander@ou.nl
prezi.com > Cornelis de Brabander
conceptual analysis - neuro-imaging research - empirical observations
Task-specific compontents from:
Full transcript