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Autism

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Kayla Otte

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorders PARENTS Parents of children with Autism already take on more roles than the typical daily parent responsibilities. However, since the parents know their child’s strengths and weaknesses, the parents’ participation is essential in making important decisions such as being included in a general education setting. Creating a positive relationship with the parents is a key factor in a successful educational team. TEACHERS Teachers play a critical role in the lives of children with ASD as well as the families of the children. Regardless of a parent’s emotional state, an effective teacher MUST display empathy to each family’s unique situation. In order to understand, you must empathize! Once you have put yourself in each family’s shoes, you are able to see their struggles and offer the appropriate services and accommodations. Effective teachers must do research on the disability the children have, and become familiar with the actual type of disability, risks/precautions, strengths/weaknesses, specific needs, etc. that each child may require. Know the specific areas the child needs the most work on, and create goals for him/her. Our main goal as effective teachers should be to let these families know that we are there to help them in any way that we can, as well as assuring them that we are providing their children with the necessary tools and attention to ensure progress and to reach goals. Remember, parents take great pride in their child’s accomplishments, whether minor or major. PRINCIPALS Principals also play an imperative role in the enrichment of a child’s education. Principals can encourage collaboration among parents, teachers, and other school staff members. In initiating or even supporting this type of collaboration. In doing this we are keeping the eye on the prize and creating a proper learning environment for the students. COMMUNITY The community plays a big role in each student's life. Be advocates for the children and educate the community. Education is key to acceptance. Do not shelter your students. Take them on field trips and out into the community. Doing so is teaching the students how they can be successful members of society. Every member holds a puzzle piece that
binds the child as a whole.
When every member
puts their part, we will have established the necessary building blocks in helping our
children
prosper and grow! Using Visual Schedules with First things First What is Autism? Autism is a developmental brain disorder that covers a range of severity levels.

One in 88 children in America have autism.

Of the people living with Autism Spectrum Disorder about 25 percent of them are nonverbal.

These individuals may use other means of communication such as assistive technology or sign language.

Students with autism thrive on routine along with the use of visual aids. Visual Supports By: Kayla Otte SPED 332
Mid-term Project
March 10, 2013 Visual Representations Visual Representations are used to create visual supports.
Different types of visual representations used for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder include:
Real Objects
Photographs
Line Drawings
Words Real Objects Photographs Line Drawings Words Using real objects as a representation for students includes taking a real object and connecting it to a relevant activity or environment.

This is beneficial for students with ASD because it helps them to make a connection between the object and the activity while also allowing them to feel in control.

The use of real objects is the most concrete form of representation for students with ASD.

The use of real objects can be difficult for teachers/parents to organize and transport, and can cause the student to stand out from peers. Using photographs as a visual representation can include taking pictures, clip art, or digital photos to represent the activities of a child with ASD.

This form of visual representations can be individualized for the child by using pictures specifically taken for them. (EX. Picture of the students desk in the class)

Individualizing photographs can be time consuming for teachers/parents, but is an effective form of visual representations. Line drawings can be created by
free hand or by computer program.

Line drawing software can be very
effective for creating visual aids.

One difficulty with the use of line drawings is that parents may have different ideas of what symbols are considered appropriate for their child. Words can be used alone or with pictures.

The use of pictures with words can help to transition students from object, and/or picture visuals to word-only visuals.

Using words can help teachers and parents to use like vocabulary when working with the student.


Visual supports are a non-intrusive support for children with ASD that can be easily individualized for the student.

When creating visual supports teachers/parents must consider the form or mode of visual supports to be used with the individual child.

Visual Supports can be:
Static: Print-only or object based supports
Dynamic: Use of multimedia supports along with visual input
Interactive: use of multimedia requiring involvement of the child.

When creating visuals, teachers and parents must consider:
Cost
Preparation time
Comfort level of teachers and parents with form of support
Availability of staff to teach form of support to the child and other adults. Visual Supports Types of visual supports used
with children with Autism Spectrum
Disorder include:
Visual Schedules
Visuals to Structure the Environment
Visual Scripts
Rule Reminder Cards
Visual Task Analysis


Visual schedules can be helpful for students with ASD by providing them with a way to anticipate the order of the day’s events and by allowing them to have a sense of independence.

When using visual schedules, take the first/then approach in which the student must finish one task before moving onto the next.
Visual schedules can be used in a variety of ways including:
Illustrating the activity taking place
Specify the activity coming up next
To show when an activity will be finished
To identify changes to the normal schedule


When used in a natural environment, visuals to structure the environment can:
Allow for students with ASD to be more independent
Allow for students not to rely on others to tell them what to do all the time
Promote structure and predictability
Provide students with a sense of stability

Visuals can be used for organization by labeling specific areas for different things in the classroom and at home.

This allows for the child to put things away without the help of others. (EX. A label on a self to specify which object belongs on that shelf.)

Visuals can also be used to identify which tasks are completed in each location. Visuals to Structure the Environment



Visual scripts are used to help students with ASD to navigate and understand social situations, solve problems, and prepare them for conversation.

Visual scripts are usually in the form of a written scenario, or skit meant to help students with ASD with conversations and interactions with others.

Visual scripts help students who shows signs of social avoidance, social indifference, or social awkwardness with developing important social skills.

One of the most common forms of visual scripts is a social story. Social stories are used when a student does not fully understand a social situation to show students appropriate social behaviors. Visual Scripts


Rule reminder cards are used to remind students of the behaviors that are expected of them in a variety of different situations.

Rule reminder cards allow students a place to look for what are appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and what consequences will result from those behaviors.

Rule cards can look a variety of ways including:
One picture or symbol
Several pictures or symbols
Pictures of acceptable behaviors. Rule Reminder Cards Visual Task Analysis


Visual task analysis is a step-by-step visual for students that allows them to complete a task independently without prompting.

These can be used for simple tasks or more complex multiple step procedures.

Visual task analysis is beneficial for students who have a difficult time with remembering the order of multiple step processes. Example of a visual task analysis An example social story title page Visual Schedules A few ways visual supports can be used in a classroom References

http://www-tep.ucsd.edu/about/Courses/EDS382/General_Handouts/Autism-Visual%20Supports.pdf

http://www.autism-center.ucsd.edu/autism-information/Documents/A_S_visual_supports.pdf

http://autismspectrum.illinoisstate.edu/resources/factsheets/visualsupports.shtml

http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism

http://www.freewebs.com/eaduncan/washing%20hands%20pic.jpg

http://www.matankids.org/2012/02/27/purim-carnival-social-story/ Thanks for watching
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