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Chapter 2: Production
Transcript of Chapter 2: Production
communities In the addition to the people who buy stuff (consumers) and those who make stuff (workers), there is one more group deeply affected by production processes!!!!!! (Leonard 2010 p. 111) The Story Of Stuff : PRODUCTION
Group members :
Avril Lau 2083119
Le Hong Anh 425715
Sergio Enrique Rivera Carballido 2084283
Stephanie Liau 2076085
Yushi Chen 2088875 GAIN OR LOSE INTRODUTION People who live, work and play near factories!!!! Economic growth Stupid Stuff
(Page 81-91) Usually those communities are poor, and the people in them are usually not white skinned
(Leonard 2010, p 111). Aluminium & PVC plastic (polyvinly chloride) Aluminium Resource depletion
Implications of global warming HOWEVER... This phenomenon is known as environmental
racism (Leonard 2010 p. 111). What do we really seek? House side panels Human Capital
......(other initiatives) Economic development Quantitative & Qualitative Changes in the Economy The fact that twenty years later, environmental racism persists and even increased is shameful for all of us! (Leonard
2010 p. 113) Cotton A BOOK Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Processing TOXICITY!!! The largest usage in the world = The United States!
100 billion cans per year or 340 per person : almost one a day (Leonard 2010,pg 81)
More than half of the 100 billion cans sold in the U.S. last year were landfilled
1 ton of cans produces 5 tons of caustic waste
(CRI,2006) Clean up our production processes and environmental governance. (Leonard 2010 p. 114). Meanwhile in China & India....
only 10 cans per person/per year on average Conventional Cotton Farming Chemicals are first sprayed on the field.
Kill beneficial insects and microorganisms in the soil.
Cotton workers frequently suffer from neurological and vision disorders. The Color T-shirts get bleached before being dyed.
Many companies are still likely to use chlorine, which gets mixed with organic materials and leaves in wastewater, finally becomes a carcinogen and neurotoxin.
During sewing, the dangerous chemicals cause problems with sleep, concentration, mermory and more cancers. Horrible working conditions and starvation wages
Long working time
Grueling pressure at work
Unsafe Workers The Front Lines These diseases and deaths are completely preventable. Civilized society should not tolerate this unnecessary loss of life either on the job or in our communities.
__Dr.Peter Orris WHY DO PEOPLE USE CANS? More than 98%, nearly all, of the substances used in our factories today have yet been tested for carcinogens.
Work exposure to carcinogens causes about 20,000 deaths and 40,000 new cases of cancer each year.
Other results such as cardiovascular disease, reproductive and neurological disorders, skin problems, respirator diseases including asthma, and more. The Production of Aluminum Deny
Improve FOUR CATEGORIES OF INGREDIENTS Fiber
Water DEFORESTATION Bauxite washed
mixed with caustic soda
heated,settled and filtered. Smelters Today, nearly half of the tress cut in North America go to making paper for everything.
Each year, about 30 million trees are used to make books sold in the United States.
There are about 26000 trees in Central Park, so to make our books we use more than 1150 times that number. Needs alot of energy (liquid to solid)
Uses coal-generated electricity (releases Carbon monoxide,Nitrogen dioxide and Sulfur dioxide)
Smelter process/electrolytic cell releases fluorine from cryolite in the form of perfluorocarbon RECYCLE (Leonard 2010,pg 82) 20 to 30 percent of aluminium's total production is electricity
& others are the transportation which takes less than 1 percent (Leonard 2010,pg 84) PULPING Mechanical: involves chopping, grinding, or mashing the source material to separate the cellulose fibers from other compounds.
Chemical: takes chemicals, heat and pressure to separate the fibers. TOXINS Brazil A+ in recycling . Recycling in Unites States = Decline " No one would be so stupid, so irrational to use such a higly valuable,energy-intensive metal to hold a simple bevarage - Wall E (Leonard 2010,pg 86) PVC plastic (polyvinly chloride) Why PVC? Cheap & Versatile plastic Cholrine gas Ethylene dichloride (EDC) Vinyl Chloride monomer (VCM) PVC . PVC itself are brittle limited use therefore additives such as lead,mercury and synthethic materials are added (Leonard 2010,pg 87) How to get rid of PVC? Ways to identify PVC : "vinly" or "PVC" or "V" (Leonard 2010,pg 90) Starting Upstream 1992 2000 2010 65 % 54.5 % 45% Percentage Year Ingridients to be extracted/created.
Energy used in making or using the product
Presence or absence of toxic chemicals. Length of product lifespan
Ability to recycle
The effect or harm of product that is not recyclable. DESIGN OF PRODUCT We cant transform the system of stuff unless we transform the way we think - Annie Leonard (Leonard 2010,pg 131) 131-134 Biomimicry - Design solutions inspire by NATURE. 1) understand how the nature works
2)take principles and figure out how to make products that adhere to them. Chlorine
Petroleum TCF: Totally chlorine free, using oxygen or ozone and hydrogen peroxide instead of chlorine to bleach paper.
ECF: Element chlorine free, replaces chlorine gas with chlorine derivatives, such as chlorine dioxide.
PCF: paper made from recycled paper sources. KEY QUESTIONS ABOUT
PRODUCTION Is all the effort to extract ingredients for and produce
this thing, combined with my hours of work to pay for
it, worth it?
Can I borrow one from a friend?
Were toxic ingredients used to make it?
What was it like to be one of the factory workers
who helped create it?
Was any part of the production so distasteful that
rich countries with higher standards refused to do it? My Computer Hand recording VS Digital recording Pen and Paper VS Gadgets Annie Leonard Aware of how beneficial it is with technologies.
Lost without her laptop and handphone. Technologies productions
Concentrated Toxins Production of technologies gives out a lot of dangerous toxin that pollute the surrounding environment and destroy workers' health.
Many such production factories moved their factories to other countries, mainly Asia as their labour expenses and production costs are lower. Rules and regulations are less strict too.
E.g: Silicon Valley Resulting Soybean-oil-based ink DANGEROUS MATERIALS Heavy metals: mined from the earth, like lead, cadmium, mercury, etc. Even though these all occur in nature, they are supertoxic to all life forms. LEAD Lead is a neurotoxin, which means it poisons the brain and the nervous system.
It is still widespread use in stuff like care batteries, PVC plastic and toys, etc This law requires that companies producing or using toxic chemicals above specific threshold amounts provide data on toxic chemicals the use in order to assist emergency workers in case of an accident. MERCURY In 1986 the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) was created as part of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act. Mercury exposure impairs cognitive skills; in large doses it messes with your lungs and eyes and can cause tremors, insanity and psychosis.
It also causes cancer, cell death and diabetes.
Mercury contamination from fish in recent years. TOXICS IN, TOXICS OUT THE MAKEUP OF YOUR MAKEUP One-third of them contained at least one ingredient linked to cancer.
Nearly half of them contained an ingredient that is harmful to the reproductive system and to a baby's development.
60 percent of them contained an ingredient that mimics estrogen or can disrupt hormones.
More than half of them contained "penetration enhancer" chemicals, which help other chemicals move into the body deeper and faster. INTO THE MOUTHS OF BABES The TRI is a great source of information on local pollution sources and on trends in differemt industrial sectors, but it still needs to be stronger!!! 5 biggest limitations 1.- Relies on self-reporting by the polluters.
2.- it doesn't cover all toxic chemicals.
3.- it omits some major pollution sources.
4.- amoun of toxic chemicals not required.
5.- posible secondary effects on products information is not provided.
p. 120) Watching Out for Us
(Or Not?) What are used to make the Computer components? Hush-hush! Secrecy! Exclusively Owned! Annie Leonard tried finding out what the computer components are made from but made many barriers. It was an order to keep it secret! Reference List: Companies might not know too! Microchips Usually made from Silicon~ Most important part of the computer! Inhaling Silicon could cause respiration problems...
As well as lung cancer! Other many other chemicals involve. 'Clean' rooms??!!! Blindness, cancer, miscarriage etc. 'Clean' Rooms Chemicals are more hazardous than those when making the microchips. Harmful to the workers' health and environment... PBDEs (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers) No dust fall on those chips. 1 chip = 17 Kilograms of wastewater and 7.8grams of solid waste Flame 3 If 2 agencies can't get on the same page about something as critical and basic as keeping neurotoxins off our dinner plate, what can we expect of the whole mess of gouvernment measures? The gouvernment's regulations takes a fragmented aproach. Often the agency staff
who regulate chemical compounds don't even talk to each other!! Many of the agencies incharge of the laws we're relying on were created before any of us had cellphones or Internet acces; some were stablished even before fax machines! D: HOW PAPER IS MADE Fiber Recycle Mashed Flattened Dried Presto Paper We need to think less about restriction and more about conversion!! A more succesful approach to chemicals policy would include researching and disseminating more comple information in the chemical reports. Conclusion Before buying a product, what
will you first consider about? ex : charger businessofnike. 2012. Available at: http://businessofnike.wordpress.com/. [18 October 2012].
Weiss Klimatechnik | Cleanroom Technology. 2012. Cleanroom Technology. Available at: http://www.wkt.com/en/service/cleanroom_technology/schunk01.c.63676.en. [18 October 2012].
facts about cotton; its history and uses. 2012. Available at: http://www.organic-nature-news.com/facts-about-cotton.html. [18 October 2012].
Sources for Obtaining Industry Norms to Compare Financial Ratios ~ Best Homework Help in Business, Management and Dissertation. 2012. Available at: http://assignmenthelpexperts.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/sources-for-obtaining-industry-norms-to.html. [18 October 2012].
File:Cost of chicken in time worked.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2012. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cost_of_chicken_in_time_worked.jpg. [18 October 2012].
Economic growth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2012. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_growth. [18 October 2012].
Economic development - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2012. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_development#Growth_and_Development. [18 October 2012].
Toxicity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2012. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxicity. [18 October 2012]. CRI - Aluminium Can's dirty little secret. 2006. Container Recycling Institute. Available at: http://www.container-recycling.org/facts/aluminum/dirty.htm">.12 October 12 A 2005 study of thousands of personal care products, pp97 Following the paper trail - paper recycling, 15 Oct 2010.
Available from:<http://www.youtube.com/watch?fe ature=player_embedded&v=ohv9y8Bi3fU>. [16 Oct 2012] The X Effect, 13 April 2012. Available from:<http:// www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=CKAuglDOi3E>. [16 Oct 2012] The story of stuff - Annie Leonard Aluminium, (2008). 15 April 2008. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=0Rs4vHo6_oc</a>. [ 17 October 2012]. Flame retardants Chemical used to make the flame retardants aren't scientifically tested that it really works. retardant~ Some countries ban it! That is only one small part of computer!!!?? So many chemicals and toxins already! How about the computer monitor?! Batteries?!!! Batteries and Monitor screens Screen monitors are a piece of glass polished with chemicals to make it shiny. Chemical used to make it's colour and textures. Also, not to say, flame retardants. Different batteries are made up of different chemicals. Like Lithium batteries are obviously made with lithium and other chemicals. All kinds of chemicals = Hard to recycle and dispose! Claims to try to be environmentally friendly,less toxics and less energy consumption Renown Companies Eg. Dell
Later on found out to be using flame retardant as well. Dell
Violated the labour regulations Companies that took steps to use renewable energy, reduce packaging,increase recycle contents. Annie Leonard's Wonders Technologies improve every 2 years on average Geniuses that can improve technologies so fast why can't they make the products more environmental as well? At least, improve the life span of these technologies and durability NGOs challenge The Electronic Sustainability Commitment of the principles reads:
Each new generation of technical improvements in electronic products should include parallel and proportional improvements in environmental, health and safety as well as social justice attributes. It wasn't always this way Hard to control Not knowing the negative impacts Incredible increase Industrial revolution Mid twentieth century population Use of resources Frontier mentality Michaelian, B. (2012). Do You Know WHY? Your Why?. Available: <http://www.worksmartmompreneurs.com/blog/inspiration/do-you-know-why-your-why/>. [19th Oct 2012]. The recycling graph on United States. Annie Leonard, 2012, pp91