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Tracy Lat

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Bacteria

photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr What It Is Introduction The over-advertising of the word "antibacterial" in many products today has led to a major misconception: that all bacteria are bad.

Because of this, many people purchase products with bacteria killing properties for extra protection from bacterial infections. Bacteria by Tracy L & Mildred N Thank You What they don't realize is that in societies that have high standards of living, antibacterials can cause more harm when used as a preventative measure with no high-risk situations such as city-wide outbreaks. Our bodies actually contain more bacteria cells than human cells with a ratio of 10 to 1. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that exist on the entire surface of the world and are capable of multiplying on its own (without a host). There are numerous bacteria in your body and many of them are harmless. Though bacteria generally involves a bad reputation due to public awareness of harmful ones such as salmonella, tuberculosis and E. coli, there are also "good" bacteria. Bacteria are classified by 3 main ways: shape, oxygen dependance and gram-staining. Oxygen Dependance:
1. Aerobic - requires oxygen to thrive
2. Anaerobic - cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen
3. Facultative Anaerobic - prefers oxygen but can survive without it Gram-staining branches into positive and negative. It is a stain test that is done to determine choices of therapy.
Gram-positive bacteria have thicker and waxier layers while negatives have an extra fatty layer that provides protection from antibiotics. Probiotics are a common form of "good" bacteria found in fermented foods, yogurts (containing live cultures) and unbaked cheese. Picture: Probiotics in yogurt Between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, bacteria are prokaryotic.

Prokaryotic cells - smaller in size, no cell nuclear or any other membrane-bound organelle Interesting Fact: Though most of the bacteria within your body is harmless, they can cause complications if they are mistakenly introduced into wrong areas. Check Out: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=microbiome-graphic-explore-human-microbiome For an interactive diagram of some common bacteria in the body that are beneficial or can become harmful. Treatment Antibiotics Drug Therapy Bacterial Infections The 3 common shapes are spherical, rod-shaped and spiral. Bacterial infections can be caused by exposure to a harmful strand of bacteria designed to invade, a bacterial mutation occurs or a harmless bacteria mistakenly ends up in the wrong place in the body and causes complications. A common bacterial infection that is limited to an area is conjunctivitis, or pink eye. They work in one of two ways:
Bactericidal - actively kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic - inhibit bacterial growth

Antibiotics are grouped by their target area of action on the bacterium (ex: blocks the formation of certain layers or blocks essentials needed for protein synthesis and division). Antibiotics are the main choice for therapy. They work to either eliminate or inhibit the growth of most of the bacteria so that your body's defense (WBCs) can rid the infection.

Taking the right type and amount of antibiotics is key to removing the infection, prevent a recurring infection or from creating bacterial resistance that can lead to superbugs.

Superbugs - caused by the inadequate or unnecessary use antibiotics that creates bacterium that have developed resistances to drugs and continue thrive to become dangerous infections Consisting of 7 main groups they are:
1. penicillins - bactericidal
2. sulfonamides - bacteriostatic
3. cephalosporins - bactericidal
4. tetracyclines - bacteriostatic
5. macrolides - bacteriostatic
6. quinolones - bactericidal
7. aminoglycosides - bactericidal Penicillins Sulfonamides Tetracyclines 2 3 4 Forms of transmission:
1. Airborne (ex. coughing or sneezing)
2. Vector-borne (ex. mosquito bites)
3. Direct contact (ex. contact with open wounds)
4. Indirect contact (ex. infected objects) - A broad spectrum antibiotic that is the usual first line of defense for infections - Are divided into 4 generations: - mechanims of action and chemical structures are similiar

- an allergy to penicillin means that there's a 10% chance you will be allergic to cephalosporins too (cross-sensitivity) Cephalosporins Examples: penicillin (Pen V, G), cloxacillin (Orbenin), ampicillin (Polyflex), amoxicillin (Amoxil), etc. SE: nausea, diarrhea, rash SE: generally the same as penicillin side-effects but is also know to cause some unique toxic reactions in a few - though similar in structure, cephalosporins differ in their bacterial spectrum and their pharmacokinetics does not make it harmful to humans since we do no actually create our own folic acid (we ingest it) AUX: Do not drink alcohol.
Take with lots of water.
Avoid sun (increased photosensitivity).
Alters birth control meds.
May cause colour change in urine.
Take until finished. Another example are natural flora in your intestines that are responsible for producing vitamin k. They are extremely beneficial to the body since they help with inhibiting the growth and ridding of disease-causing bacteria by regulating the immune system.
AUX: Take with or without food.
Take until finished.
May alter birth control meds.
- generally more effective against gram-positives First Gen - greater gram-negative coverage (ex: mild-moderate community acquired infx)
1st Gen - cephalexin (Keflex)
Second Gen - increased activity, especially effective against a pathogen in the pediatric group (ex: otitis media, respirator & UTI infx)
2nd Gen - cefprozil (Cefzil) Third Gen - wide spectrum of gram-negative & used for severe infx
3rd Gen - cefixime (Suprax) Fourth Gen - broad spectrum coverage (only one drug, Maxipime - a more cost effective alternative for ceftazidime)
4th Gen - cefepime (Maxipime) Therapeutic Use: pneumonia, respiratory infx, tooth & gum infx, STDS (Gonorrhea, meningitis, endocartitis Therapeutic Use: oral infx, OB/GYN procedures (dental), upper respiratory & sinus infx, UTIs, intra-abdominal infx, meningitis - more susceptible to an enzyme that causes penicillin-resistant bacterial strands
- both work by preventing the rigid cell wall to be formed allowing water to enter the bacterium and cause it to lyse SE: nausea, colour change of urine, rash, vomiting, kidney damage leading to jaundice Ex: Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole & trimethoprim), nitrofurantoin (MacroBid, Macrodantin) Therapeutic Use: UTIs, otitis media, ulcerative colitis, lower respiratory infx The oldest antibiotics on the market works by blocking the ability to make folic acid needed in making DNA; destroying the bacteria (bacteriostatic) 5 1 Macrolides SE: GI upset, discoloured urine & feces, after taste Ex: Biaxin, Zithromax, erythromycin, etc. Therapeutic Use: chlamydia, H. Influenza, Legionnaires' Disease, etc. bacteriostatic; primarily used to treat pulmonary and gram-positive infx AUX: Take with food.
May discolour urine & feces.
Alters birth control meds.
Therapeutic Use: acne, chronic bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, chlamydia, etc produced by soil organisms
broad-spectrum bacteriostatic
supresses the infection, requires WBCs to completely eradicate the bacteria
AUX: Do not take with antacids.
Avoid excessive sun exposure.
Avoid dairy products.
May cause tooth discolouration.
Alters birth control meds. SE: photosensitivity, N&V, teeth discolouration, effects on bone growth Ex: Minocin (minocycline), Vibramycin, Tetracycline, etc. Quinolones Therapeutic Use: bone & joint infx, infectious diarrhea, some STD's, UTIs, upper respiratory infx, etc. AUX: Avoid excessive sun exposure.
Do not take with antacids or dairy.
Do not take with food. (some of them)
Alters birth control meds.
SE: photosensitivity, N&V, dizziness, unpleasant taste Ex: ciprofloxacin, moxifloxican, Levaquin, etc. last resort for strongest bacteria
strong, rapid bactericidal for gram-negative & many gram-positive bacteria Aminoglycosides Therapeutic Use: serious bacterial infx commonly used to treat life-threatening conditions like sepsis & immuno-compromised patients Ex: Garamycin, Nebcin, etc. SE: nephrotoxicity (destruction to kidneys), ototoxicity (destruction to auditory organs), N&V Aux: May cause photosensitivity.
May cause dizziness.
May cause hearing loss. A infection that is extremely dangerous and can spread is necrotizing fasciitis, or also known as flesh-eating disease. Some bacteria that are responsible for common infections and also exist in harmless forms are:
Staphylococcus - anything from boils and styes to pneumonia, UTIs, and meningitis.
Esherichia Coli (E. Coli) - exists passively in our intestines but some strands can cause severe stomach cramps and diarrhea.
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa - meningitis, pneumonia, UTIs
Enterococcus faecalis - also a normal inhabitant of our intestines but can cause UTIs, endocartitis, abdominal abscesses, etc Main Conclusion To Be Drawn: Get to know your bacteria and help prevent the rise of the superbug apocalypse!

The first and best step is to take antibiotics ONLY when it's necessary!
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