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Arguments and Logical Fallacies

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Michael Piergalski

on 23 May 2017

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Transcript of Arguments and Logical Fallacies

9 Logical Fallacies:
+Ad Hominem
Arguments & Logical Fallacies
Ad Hominem
Attacking one's opponent on a personal level instead of arguing with the opponent's viewpoints.
Appeal to Authority / Testimonial
Cites prominent figures to support a position. Also could involve expert/celebrity testimonials.
Slippery Slope
The premise that if one thing happens, something else is sure to follow, and then something else. An illogical chain of events.
Illogical Causation
Implying that one thing causes another using flawed reasoning.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it was noted that there was a strong correlation between the number of people with radios and the number of people in insane asylums. This s a CORRELATION WITHOUT CAUSATION.
Since 1600, the number of pirates in theworld has declined while the average global temperature has increased. Therefore, the decline in pirates is to blame for global warming.
Appeal to Fear
Instilling anxiety or panic in one's audience.
Black-and-white Fallacy (Either - Or)
Presenting only 2 choices, with the author's idea or product being the better choice.
Drive hybrid car. Otherwise, YOU are part of the air pollution problem
Glittering Generality
The Transfer
To appeal with emotional words that offer no provable benefits.
Vague with positive connotation
To project positive or negative qualities of a person or idea to another in order to make something more acceptable or discredit it.
Our candidate is an active member of his church. He will make a great senator.
Circular Argument
A is true because B is true; B is true because A is true. Little/no evidence is actually given
+Federer is a great player because he has excellent footwork. He has excellent footwork because he is a great player.

+The Patriots are the best professional football team because they are better than everyone else.
Create a bumper sticker/flyer on one of the following topics using one of the following fallacies:
A. Why Josh should/n't be elected class president
B. The virtues of Taco Bell's new Cool Ranch Taco
1. Ad Hominem 2. Appeal to Authority/Testimonial 3. Slippery Slope 4. Illogical Causation 5. Appeal to Fear 6. Black-and-white Fallacy 7. Glittering Generality 8. Transfer 9. Circular Argument
+Appeal to Authority / Testimonial
+Slippery Slope
+Illogical Causation
+Appeal to Fear
+Glittering Generality
+Black-and-White / Either-Or
+The Transfer
+Circular Argument
"How can I believe your arguments for vegetarianism when you're enjoying that juicy steak?"
Logical Evidence
*Should the US ban incoming flights from West Africa in an effort to control the Ebola outbreak?*
Yes. The US must protect its borders. Ebola's source is the West African rain forest. Therefore, if we stop air travel from that region, the potential for an outbreak in the US is less likely.
No. Just because the US bans air travel from West Africa doesn't mean people with Ebola won't get into the country. Thousands of people enter the country illegally every week. Logically, it is better to document the people arriving in the country than to force them underground.
1. How does Gandhi utilize 'cause & effect' to organize his speech?
2. Despite Gandhi's fame and reputation, his argument is far from perfect. Which fallacies is he guilty of?
3. Gandhi does, though, include the some of the principle aspects of an argument:
I. Claim
II. Evidence
III. Reasoning
IV. Counterclaims
V. Refutations
VI. Conclusion/Call to Action
Are there any laws currently on the books which you feel are unjust?
It is illegal to fish with a bow and arrow in KY.
For various reasons your class chose the following states as most likely to win the war of the states: CO, TX, HI, KY, AK, CA, NY, MD
Choose TWO of these choices for which to create a series of counterclaims. For each state, provide at least two counterclaims. Begin like this: "Despite ________'s strengths, one could argue against it. For instance,...."
Ethos: Refers to the source's credibility and/or authority.
Logos: Using logical reasoning to support one's argument; can also utilize facts and statistics.
Pathos: Using language or visuals to obtain an emotional response; motivates by playing to audience's emotions.
Read "Surrender on Bear Paw Mountain." Appeal type?
Read "On Women's Right to Vote." Appeal type?
According to Aristotle, the goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's
The 3 primary methods of arguing are ETHOS, LOGOS and PATHOS. You studied these last year, but for the argument you'll begin writing next week, it's worth spending some time reviewing.

Google’s wearable computer, the most anticipated piece of electronic wizardry since the iPad and iPhone, will not go on sale for many months.

But the resistance is already under way.

The glasses-like device, which allows users to access the Internet, take photos and film short snippets, has been pre-emptively banned by a Seattle bar. Large parts of Las Vegas will not welcome wearers. West Virginia legislators tried to make it illegal to use the gadget, known as Google Glass, while driving.

“This is just the beginning,” said Timothy Toohey, a Los Angeles lawyer specializing in privacy issues. “Google Glass is going to cause quite a brawl.”
People generally embrace new technology. Produce several counterclaims explaining why Google Glass is not a good idea.
Many universities and even high schools are providing students with e-books instead of traditional books, citing convenience cost.
Make the counterclaim for continuing the use of print books.
Defend Justin Bieber's poor behavior.
+Spit on fans from a balcony
+Peed in a bucket in the kitchen of a restaurant
+Sat courtside at a Heat game; his bodyguards stood behind him for the whole game.
+Abandoned his pet monkey at International Customs in Germany
+Threw eggs at his neighbor's house, causing over $80,000 of damage.
Do you see the restatement of just one idea in both the conclusion and the premise?
Think about this argumentative prompt. Then, with your partner, write two logically flawed reasons to support your claim. I will assign you two specific fallacies.
Sit with your partner:
#55-60 (skip 59)
Write the definition and an example for the #s I've assigned you.
Sit with your partner:
#55-60 (skip 59)
Write the definition and an example for the #s I've assigned you.
Sit with your partner:
+Olivia Mid/Gavin
+Olivia Mas/Christian
#55-60 (skip 59)
Write the definition and an example for the #s I've assigned you.
Sit with your partner:
+Kallie / Ashley
+Nolan / Jack
#55-60 (skip 59)
Write the definition and an example for the #s I've assigned you.
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