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Lexicalise Your Lesson - Elem. School
Transcript of Lexicalise Your Lesson - Elem. School
take a breath
a cup of tea
alarm went off
Learners do not have enough exposure
Learners need guidance
Learner L1 influences their production
Why is collocation important ?
Allows learners process and produce language at a faster rate
Helps learners move from receptive to productive vocabulary knowledge
Difference between near synonyms is often their collocational fields
"Progress in English [...] depends on sufficient lexical input, of which collocation is the single most important element."
Lewis, M. (ed) (2000). Teaching collocation: Further developments in the Lexical Approach. Hove: LTP
...a few years ago
See you later!
Come to think of it...
If I were you...
There's been a lot of opposition to...
Cambridge Dictionary Online
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
Just the Word - Collocation look up
Language knowledge is collocational knowledge
hot / free / proper / main
take / make / break
set up / run / do (a)
customer / check / exercise
______ the dog out for a walk
I ______ it as a compliment
Let’s ______ the bus
What do you ______ me for?!
How do you ______it? With or without milk?
Which types of vocabulary exercises are more common in textbooks?
Exercises in textbooks tend to focus on
Corpus - A database of samples of 'real world' texts
Main pedagogic principles
Teach words in CHUNKS
Integrate NEW items with OLD items
Provide natural EXAMPLES
tend to be similar across - even vastly different - languages
are often arbitrary
Wolter, B. & Gyllstad, H. (2011). 'Collocational links in the L2 mental lexicon and the influence of L1 intralexical knowledge'. Applied Linguistics, 32(4), 430-449
Follow me on
Leo Selivan ELT
synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy
Paradigmatic (vertical) relationships:
Syntagmatic (horizontal) relationships:
apple shirt banana hat apricot skirt peach tie pear scarf
Presenting new words in semantic sets
interferes with learning
Tinkham, T. (1993). The effect of semantic clustering on the learning of L2 vocabulary. System 21(3), 371-380
Waring, R. (1997). The negative effects of learning words in semantic sets: A replication. System 25, 261-274
Photos by Tzvi Meller
shirt hammer (to) sell sunny government
My school good
The food is bad
Our teacher OK
Adapted from Andrew Walkley's blog
I go to school by car / train / bus
I like to eat ______ for _______.
Can I borrow your _______ ?
Collocations: frequent combinations of two (or three) content words
Semi-fixed expressions have at least one slot into which a number of different words can be inserted
Could you please pass the ... ?
Fixed expressions cannot be changed.
How's it going?
thank you for _______ me here today...
a topic I am particularly _________ in
have enjoyed a fruitful ____________
hope our relationship continues to _______
memorized phrases are the building blocks of fluent speech
"a phrase book with grammatical notes"
Pawley, A. & Syder, F.H. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: nativelike selection and nativelike fluency. Available at: http://bit.ly/15rl19p
Lewis, M. (1993).
The Lexical Approach.
... is at home
... works from home
buy a new house
Learner at all levels make collocational errors
Errors mainly due to L1 transfer
Israeli learners of English
L1 - Hebrew / Arabic
Laufer, B. & Waldman, T. (2011). 'Verb-noun collocations in second language writing: a corpus analysis of learners’ English'. Language Learning, 61(2), 647-672
Students' writing analyzed across
three levels of proficiency
1. small lunch (light meal)
2. e.g. a picnic (cold meal)
3. a device to turn a lamp on (light switch)
4. easy tasks, e.g. dusting (light work)
5. and the opposite of this (hard work)
6. praise for achievement (great work!)
7. praise for cooking (great meal!)
8. bad weather (rainy and cold)
9. bad weather that is not a serious problem (light rain)
10. what you do at night before you go to bed (switch off the light)
Collocation box - answers
Which is more effective?
Alternatives to lexical sets
Davis, P. & Kryszewska, H. (2003). 'Chunking for Beginners'. Humanising Language Teaching. Retrieved from: www.hltmag.co.uk/mar03/less.htm
Chunks for beginners
Lexis = Vocabulary + Grammar
Verb + noun collocations
go to school
brush my teeth
feed the dog