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8Sci: Ch 02.1 - Solids, Liquids, & Gases (pgs 40-46)
Transcript of 8Sci: Ch 02.1 - Solids, Liquids, & Gases (pgs 40-46)
Solids, Liquids, & Gases
The four states of matter are:
Matter can be described using:
When particles move more quickly, they move farther apart and have a weaker attractive force.
solid - have a definite shape and a definite volume
Two types of solids:
crystalline solid - particles arranged in specific, repeating order
amorphous solid - particles randomly arranged
liquids - have a definite shape and an indefinite volume
- because the particles are further apart, liquid particles have a weaker attractive force than solid particles
viscosity - measurement of a liquid's resistance to flow
- the stronger the attractive forces between particles, the greater the suface tension of the liquid
gas - have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume
vapor - gas state of a substance that is usually solid or liquid at room temperature
All particles have random motion.
When particles move more slowly, they move closer together and have a stronger attractive force.
surface tension - the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
mass - the amount of matter in an object
volume - the amount of space that a sample of matter occupies
density - calculated by dividing an object's mass by its volume
- particles in a solid are placed closer together and thus have a stronger attractive force
- particles move by vibrating in place
- liquids can flow and take the shape of its container
- particles in a liquid are placed further apart than particles in a solid
- particle motion in a liquid is faster than particle motion in a solid
- is due to particle mass, particle shape, and the strength of the attraction between the particles in a liquid
- the stronger the attractive force, the higher the viscosity
- the weaker the attractive force, the lower the viscosity
- viscosity decreases as temperature increases
- particles move very quickly
- particles in a gas are placed further apart than particles in a liquid
- because particles are further apart, gas particles have a very weak attractive force
- particles spread out and take the shape of their container