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Elements and Principles of Design in Housing Interior

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Akina Stafford

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Design in Housing Interior

A well designed home incorporates the principles and elements of design in order to create a harmonious balance that surmounts to a beautiful living space which pleases the eye, yet is functional for those who live in it. As such, the design team was given a task to implement and design a living room, dining room and bedroom for our clients whereby incorporating the elements and principles of design.

Client Profile: Newly Wed Couple
Wife: Bank Manager
Husband: Engineer at BP

Interior Design Theme: Combination of Modern and Contemporary designs (based on
Client’s personal preference)

What is Interior Design

Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, through the manipulation of spatial volume as well as surface treatment.

As such, interior design draws upon aspects of environmental psychology, architecture, and product design in addition to traditional decoration.

Within the field of interior design, designers navigate the use of elements and principles of design as basic tools to create a unique environment. It is important to note that both the elements and principles of design are interdependent on each other.

Elements of Design
Objective of Presentation

• To introduce the elements and principles of design used in Interior designs

• To outline the characteristics of each element and principle of design in selecting and arranging them into design patterns.

• To evaluate how design relationships determine the functional, structural, and aesthetic qualities of interior spaces with the use of elements and principles of design

• Pattern
• Contrast
• Emphasis
• Balance
• Proportion
• Scale
• Harmony and Unity
• Rhythm
• Gradient

Elements and Principles of Design in Housing

Interior :

Living Room, Dining Room and Bedroom

The elements and principles of design used by designers for fashion, art, landscape, and interior designs are:

Shape or Form

Principles of Design

• In interior design any volume which is being contained within masonry walls and are habitable is normally termed as space.

• Interior space is defined by walls, floors, ceilings, doors, windows, and any other architectural features.

• It is the area around, within or between images or parts of an image.

Space can be classified into two categories known as Positive space and Negative space.

Positive Space:
The area occupied by an object is referred to as positive space.

Negative Space:
Negative space refers to the area surrounding the object.

Example of Positive and Negative Space
• In interior design, a balance must be created between positive and negative spaces when considering and planning for the placement of furniture, as well as other decor elements in relationship to the space’s existing architecture.

• Once a balanced is attained, it lends to good design and harmony, thus fulfilling the design equation.

• Measure the length and width of the room

• Measure the height of the ceiling

• Take into consideration the shape of the room

Evaluating Interior Space

Facts to consider when working with Space

Designer Tip for Small Spaces
• Small space gives the feeling of protection, comfort, security, establish territory, pride, ownership, opportunity to personalize own space.

• Restriction, confinement, restlessness, frustration

How to make small Spaces seem large
1. Use light colors
2. Wall to wall neutral floor colorings
3. Small-scale furnishings
4. Mirrors
5. Generous light from more than 1 source
6. Smoothly textured surfaces or textures with little pattern

Example of a Small Space designed to seem large

• Large space gives the feeling of freedom, mentally soaring into a place devoid of restrictions, stimulation

• Insecurity, inadequacy, desire to return to the safety and security

Designer Tip for Large Spaces

1. Medium to large scale patterns
2. Dark or vivid colors
3. Area rugs
4. Large-scale artwork,
5. Multiple furniture groupings

How to make a large Space seem small
Example of a Large Space designed to seem Small
Spatial Design of Interior Space:
• Focuses upon the flow of space between interior and exterior environments both in the private and public realm.

Spatial Form of Interior Space:
• Interior spaces are formed first by a building’s structural system, further defined by wall and ceiling planes, and related to other spaces by windows and doorways.

Spatial Effects: The designer incorporates spatial effects both structurally and decoratively.
Spatial Dimensions of Interior Space:
Spatial Transition of Interior Space:
• Lines are marks made by a moving point.

• They are used in interior designs to give a feeling of movement.

• Because the eye travels along a line, lines can appear to alter the size or proportion
of a room.

• The direction that a line takes can be Straight, Curved, Horizontal or Diagonal

• The quality of lines used can be thin, thick smooth or rough.

• Tend to give height, strength, and dignity. Vertical lines are awake, alert, defy gravity, rigid, firm, stable, and strong.
• Vertical features such as bookcases, panels, wall units, and floor to ceiling fireplaces create a feeling of dignity.
• Vertical lines often give a formal feeling to an interior.

Vertical straight lines
Examples of Vertical Lines

Horizontal straight lines
• Give a feeling of solidness and stability. Horizontal lines are restful, yield to gravity, create quiet, repose, passivity, calmness, or serenity.
• Examples seen in interiors include dressers, low bookshelves, and other long, low pieces of straight-lined furniture.

Diagonal lines
Examples of Horizontal lines
• Give a feeling of movement or action in a room. Diagonal lines appear undecided, unstable, busy, active, dynamic, restless, dramatic, sporty, lengthening, and reduce
horizontal or vertical shapes.
• Examples of diagonal lines include slanting ceilings, a staircase, and woven cane furniture.

Examples of Diagonal Lines

Curved lines
• Produce a flowing, graceful effect, which results in a feminine
feeling in a room.

• Curved lines are found in archways, drapery swags, rounded
and curved furniture, etc.

Examples of Curved lines

Aspects of Line
• Texture is the visible and tactile quality of any surface
• This is the surface quality that can be seen and felt.
• Textures can be Smooth, Rough, Shiny or Matte

Emotional Illusions given by Texture
• Textures can also produce certain feelings and emotions in a room.
• Plush carpet and soft fabrics provide a sense of comfort, while glass, metal and stone give a feeling of coolness.
• Rough, nubby materials give a feeling of ruggedness and stability, while smooth velvets and brocade suggest luxury.
• By having an understanding of texture, you can bring character to a room.
• Example of Textures – from the rug, the blinds, the chairs, the brick walls, table mats, counter tops, tables.

Examples of Texture
• Colour can be defined as light waves perceived according to the visual hue spectrum

Colour Wheel

Colour Scheme in Interior Design
• A colour scheme is an arrangement or combination of Colours conceived of as forming an integrated whole. It is based upon a colour system known as the colour wheel. When colours are combined in a pleasing manner, they create colour harmonies or schemes.
Primary Colours: Yellow, blue, and red are the primary colours. By mixing, lightening and darkening the primary colours, all other colours can be made.
Secondary Colours: the secondary colours are Orange, Green and Violet. They are made by mixing the primary colours.
Tertiary Colours: the tertiary colours are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange and yellow-orange. They are made by mixing primary and secondary colours together.

Seven basic Colour Schemes in Interior Designing

Rheva Davidson
Kevon Morgan
Anika Walker
Atisha Hudlin
Akina Stafford

Group Members
• Within this colour scheme, designs are based on one colour hue. A monochromatic colour scheme can be one colour, or an applied range of values based on one colour, i.e., black and white can be used to darken and lighten the value of the colour to create tints and shades
Monochromatic Colour Scheme
Monochromatic Colour Scheme
Analogous Colour Scheme
• An analogous colour scheme is any three adjacent primary, secondary, or tertiary colours on the colour wheel. Given that each colour in an analogous scheme shares a mix colour with the colour closest to it, the scheme can also be referred to as a harmonious colour scheme. Analogous colour schemes are not complimentary because of their closeness.
Analogous Colour Scheme
Complementary Colour Scheme
• This colour scheme combines two colours that are directly opposite each other on the colour wheel.
Complementary Colour Scheme
Split-Complimentary Colour Scheme
Split-Complimentary Colour Scheme
In this colour scheme, one hue is chosen and two hues, one on each side of its compliment are used.
Triadic Colour Scheme
• This type of colour scheme uses a combination of three colours equidistant apart from each other on the colour wheel.
Double Complementary Colour Scheme
• This colour scheme uses four (4) hue bases – two adjacent hues and their compliments.
Double Complementary Colour Scheme
Neutral Colour Scheme
• This type of colour scheme is made by a combination of black, white and gray. Other shades and tints may be used to add accents such as brown, tan and beige.

Neutral Colour Scheme
Triadic Colour Scheme
Colour Characteristics
• Hue: The name given to a color
• Value: The lightness or darkness of a hue
• Tint: Adding white to a hue (pastel)
• Shade: Adding black to a hue
• Intensity : The brightness or dullness of a hue

Example of Tints and Shades of Colour
Uses of Colour in Design
 Creates different emotions and mood
 Highlights the elements of design, such as line, shape and space
 Colours can represent experiences, emotions, status, and other types of information that are difficult to convey in written or spoken language
 Enhances elements of design so that they create certain principles of design such as rhythm and repetition
 Creates certain illusions within the room

Emotions driven by Colour
 Black - elegant, sophisticated, dignified, strong, serious, sad
 Brown - earthy, casual, comfortable, natural
 Navy - dignified, cool, classic, peaceful, calm
 Green - signifies life, nature, friendly
 Red - aggressive, passionate, vibrant
 Yellow - sunny, cheerful, warm
 Orange - cheerful, youthful, lively
 Violet - royal, wise, dramatic
 Gray - modest, sad, quiet dignity, professional
 Beige - quiet, tailored
 White – innocent, youthful, pure
 Pink - soft, feminine
 Gold - wealth, power, luxury

Colour Relationship
• Colours may be closely related or they may be contrasting, but the contrast can vary considerably in degree.

• The greatest contrast in hue occurs when two colours are used together which appear directly opposite each other on the colour wheel.

Illusions through the use of Colour
• Extreme contrast makes colours look brighter
• Light or warm coloured objects appear larger. Warm colours include orange, yellow and red due to their association with warm objects such as fire. Warm colours seemingly advance because they make objects appear larger.
• Dark coloured objects recede or appear smaller. This illusion can be created by cool colours such as green, blue and violet. Cool colours are called receding colours because they make objects seem smaller and farther away.
• Neutral colours are often used as background colours in design because they blend well with other colours, thereby striking a balance in design.

• Shape is the outer edge or contour of an area surrounded by a closed line. It is a flat two-dimensional area enclosed by lines.
• Form is a three-dimensional area enclosed by a surface
 Hollow forms have volume
 Solid forms have mass

Type of shapes and forms

Equal sided
 Shapes – Square, circle, equilateral triangle, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, diamond, marquis
 Forms – sphere, cube

Unequal sided
 Shapes – oval, scalene and isosceles triangle, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, heart, teardrop, paisley, club, spade, pear, kidney
 Forms – tube, cylinder, cone, pyramid, rectangular, box, bell, dome, ovoid, egg, hourglass, trumpet, barrel

Attributes of Shape and Form
• Stable and confident – rectangles, squares
• Less stable but more dynamic – triangles, pentagons, hexagons etc
• Visually interesting – unequal proportions
• Less visually interest – equal proportions, circle, square, sphere, cube
• Security – shapes that fit together tightly, squares, hexagons, diamonds, triangles, paisleys, parallelograms, rectangles
• Variety – shapes that leave spaces, octagon, star, circle, etc.

Example of Shape by the use of Pattern (wall paper)
Examples of actual Shapes

• Balance is the equal distribution of visual weight in a room
• In interior design, balance creates a feeling of equilibrium. It gives a sense of repose and a feeling of completion.
• A well-balanced room gives careful consideration to the placement of objects according to their visual weight.

Three types of Balance:
1. Symmetrical Balance
2. Asymmetrical Balance
3. Radial Balance

Symmetrical Balance

Creates a mirror image by the placement of identical items on both sides of a central point.
• Symmetrical balance is characterized by the same objects repeated in the same positions on either side of a vertical axis.
• Symmetrical balance is used to suggest formality, orderliness and restraint

Example of Balance used in Design
Asymmetrical Balance

Balance is achieved with some dissimilar objects that have equal visual weight or eye attraction.
• Asymmetrical balance occurs when objects of similar visual weight or eye attraction appear to be at equal distance from a central point
• Asymmetry has a genuine, more relax feel and suggests informality, movement, spontaneity and flexibility

Example of Asymmetry
Radial Balance
• Radial symmetry is when all the elements of a design are arrayed around a center point.
• Its chief characteristic is of a circular movement out from, toward or around a centre.

Example of Radial Balance
• Emphasis is the focal point of the room. Emphasis is the thing that first attracts the eye when a person enters the room.

• The focal point should be obvious as one enters the room; it is the area to which your eye is attracted.

• Focal points can be natural, or they can be created by highlighting a particular piece of furniture , by the use of a coloured rug or a large art piece.

Example of Emphasis used in design (focal point)
• Rhythm is defined as continuity, recurrence or organized movement.
• Rhythm helps the eye to move easily from one object to another and creates a harmony that tells the eye everything in the room belongs to a unified whole.
• Rhythm is achieved in a design by the use of repetition, progression, transition and contrast.

Example of Rhythm
• Repetition:
Is the use of the same element more than once throughout a space.
 Repetition can be achieved by the use of a pattern, colour, texture, line, or any other element.

• Progression:
Is taking an element and increasing or decreasing one or more of its qualities.
 For example, progression can be achieved by the use of colour, such as in a monochromatic colour scheme where each element is a slightly different shade of the same hue.

• Transition:
Tends to be a smoother flow, where the eye naturally glides from one area to another.
• Contrast:
This is the accentuation of the differences between elements in the design. It puts two elements in opposition to one another. Opposition can also be implied by contrasts in form, such as circles and squares used together.

Example of Contrast
• A well-designed room is a unified whole that encompasses all the other elements and principles of design.
• Harmony is achieved when everything in a space truly compliments each other by expressing one theme, mood and style. This can be done by using similar colours, shapes, or textures so that there is an uninterrupted flow.
• Harmony is created when all the elements act together to create a unified message
• Unity assures a sense of order

Example of Harmony
• Scale and Proportion are two design principles that go hand in hand, since both relate to size and shape.
• Proportion has to do with the ratio of one design element to another, or one element to the whole.
• Scale concerns itself with the size of one object compared to another.

Example of Proportion and Scale
• Within a large space, the form and arrangement of furnishings can also function as walls, provide a sense of enclosure, and define spatial patterns.

• Light, and the patterns of light and dark created, can call our attention to one area of a room, de-emphasize others, and thereby create divisions of space.

• The surface treatment of walls, floors, and ceiling planes can articulate the spatial boundaries of a room. As such their colour, texture, and pattern affect our perception of relative positions in space.

• The acoustic nature of a room’s surfaces can affect the apparent boundaries of the space. Soft, absorbent surfaces muffle sounds and can expand the acoustical
boundaries of a room. Hard surfaces that reflect sounds within a room can emphasize the physical boundaries of the space.

• The dimensions of interior space, like spatial form, are directly related to the nature of a building’s structural system-the strength of its materials and the size and spacing of its members. The dimensions of space, in turn, determine a room’s proportion and scale, and influence how it is used. This considers dimensions of width, height, length and curvilinear spaces.
• Focuses on the functionality of the relation of each space to one another. How interior spaces are related to one another is determined not only by their relative position in a building’s spatial pattern, but also by the nature of the spaces which connect them and the boundaries which they have in common. For example, openings within the wall plane, windows and doorways, re-establish contact with the surrounding spaces from which the room was originally out off.

Every line can be analyzed according to eight aspects, and every line has all eight, these are:
Each variation of an aspect carries with it physical visual effects which affect apparent physiological size, dimension and psychological effects, involving feeling and moods.

1. Path e.g. straight, restrained curve, full curve, bent, jagged, looped, wavy scalloped, zigzag or crimped.
2. Thickness e.g. thick, thin, uneven and even.
3. Continuity e.g. continuous unbroken, broken, dotted, combinations
4. Edge / sharpness e.g. sharp, fuzzy.
5. Edge / contour e.g. smooth, shaped.
6. Consistency e.g. solid, closed and smooth, porous.
7. Length e.g. long, short,
8. Direction e.g. vertical, horizontal, diagonal

The intimate characteristics of the homeowner are mirrored throughout the design, therefore the design of any space should be uniquely created for the owners of the home.
Living Room
Lighting within the home changes the mood of a room just as it does the perceived size of a room. Placement and type are important aspects of interior design, as they work in conjunction with colour selections, room size, availability of natural light and furniture selection. Light provides visibility and may create dramatic and theatrical effects, as well as convey moods and feelings.

The lighting in a room either provides illumination for the entirety of the room, or it highlights very specific elements.

• Good interior designing requires the utilization of both natural and artificial lighting.

• One major role of lighting in the interior setting is functionality. Lighting needs to serve a purpose, or it simply wastes electricity.

• Natural lighting is preferred above man-made lighting because it shows off colours better and adds to the visual space of a room by bouncing off reflective surfaces.

Example of Natural light
Example of Artificial Lighting
The living room serves as the center of gravity and sociality. The design and feel of the room represents the couples lifestyle and love. Comfort, functionality and personal preferences were also taken into account.
Dining Room
Factors considered for the Living room:
1. Flow: consider traffic patterns of getting in, out and through the room
2. Function: for the client’s, it is used as a place of relaxation, socialization and entertainment.
3. Focal Point: seating is arranged around the focal point.
4. Size and Shape of the room

The master bedroom was designed to incorporate the couple personalities with the feel of a comfortable room filled with love.

In decorating the living room for the client’s in order to add a modern- contemporary feel to the design in the living room, a neutral colour palette was used. A Modern style is fairly minimalistic. The base colour scheme consisted of neutral colours, including white, beige, and black. This was done to allow the attention in the room to be drawn towards the accessories and furnishings more effectively. The neutral colours also allowed for a feeling of balance in the room.

used for accessories were red, green and bronze. Red and green are complimentary colours and as such it gives the illusion of vibrancy, rhythm, serenity, nature, repetition, passion and life for the living room. The red couch is a contrast in colour to the other subtle and indirect colours and is a main piece in the room.

Line and shape
: Focus on geometric and angular shapes were implemented into the design for the clients’ living room. Squares and rectangles are shapes frequently found in the modern style living room. Shapes consisting of straight lines and angular edges were used in choosing furniture, sculptures and shelving.
The large ottoman and the bar stools chosen were perfect circles giving way to a contemporary feel and creating contrast in shape to the other pieces of furniture. Their shape, however make them less visually interesting.

Flow and Emphasis
: The white wall at the entrance creates a corridor effect and guides the eye directly to the focal point of the room; that is the entertainment centre. The accent stone wall place emphasis on the large entertainment centre at the front of the room.

Proportion and scale
were used in arranging and choosing furnishings and accessories for the living room, as this created an informal balance.

: Leather and other textile materials such as velvet, plush, upholstered pieces of skin were used in shaping the ambience characteristic of this style. Creating a clean sophisticated finish. A mixture of smooth and rough textures was used to create a feeling of stability, comfort and luxury.

- Modern paintings and statement sculptures were used as points of visual interest and conversation

Orange, not unlike red, is a stimulating color and is often associated with enthusiasm, sociability and optimism. It is, therefore, the ideal color for a dining room or any space where you receive visitors and/or entertain.

Orange is a welcoming color for hallways which can often be dark or north-facing rooms that need warming up.

Orange is great for unblocking emotions and creating a sense of
joy in your life.

Consider using knocked back tones of orange such as Provencal earthy tones or introducing terracotta vases into your space.

Factors considered in designing the master’s bedroom:
1. Size and capacity
2. Shape of room
3. Consider storage space
4. Proportions of the room
5. Natural light entering the room
5. Natural Ventilation
6. Clear movement patterns

In designing the interior space for the master bedroom for the clients, the style and colour was the base for the entire design of the room incorporating the modern-contemporary theme in order to achieve harmony.

A neutral colour scheme was chosen. This provided a positive and simple feel to the room. For designing the bedroom, we tried to avoid painting it in bright colours such as red or orange. Pastel colours and neutral hues will allow the young couple to relax and sleep will be induced quickly. Fabrics were chosen to compliment the wall colours and the furniture.

: The focal point of each bedroom is the bed. The size of the bed was good enough to fit properly into the space allocated. The bed board was used as the emphasis or focal point of the room so as one enters the room, the eye will automatically be drawn towards the bed. Also, a wall design also showed emphasis in the bedroom.

Proportion and scale
: Placement of furniture in the room when arranging was done to allow for enough space to circulate easily and comfortably from one part to the other reflecting a balanced setting.
Given that the material on the floor is tiles, rugs with a ruffled finish were chosen for bedside mats, since materials such as tiles can feel uncomfortable and cold when getting out of bed. Rough texture adds a feeling of comfort. A mixture of smooth and rough textures were used to create a feeling of comfort.

• Accessories chosen for the room had smooth, and curved lines which lends itself to a feminine touch of design. Less formal in feel and design and adds to a sense of relaxation in the room.
Line and shape
Rectangles and squares are commonly used in modern designs which were incorporated but the clients choice also enhanced the use of circles which were used in the bedroom as well as bathroom.
Factors to consider for the Dining room:

1. Flow: for the couple to be able to access their dining table and dishes through easy access
2.Function: for the clients to be able to enjoy a meal and constructive conversation in a relaxed and comfortable environment
3.Focal Point: the shape and centre piece on the dining table.

Focal point
: The focal point of the room is the Dining Table. The size of the table was of an adequate size to fit into the space allocated properly. The dining table being oval shaped and containing glass at the top with a center piece to it was deemed the focal point of the dining room.

: In designing the interior space for the Dining room, the style and colour was one of the most important considerations for the room.

A vibrant colour scheme was chosen being green with red and orange. The color orange stimulates the brain, which increases mental activity and often stirs up a sensation of hunger. Many healthy foods are orange; butternut squash, carrots, oranges, and pumpkins just to name a few. Orange is a color that makes people feel welcome and when someone is comfortable, eating sounds like a great idea.
Placement of furniture in the room was done to allow for enough space to circulate easily and comfortably from one part to the other.
Given that the material on the floor is laminate flooring, it provides the room with a warm and comfortable feeling.

- Modern paintings were used to further enhance one palette and encourage one to eat.
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