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# What is a Map?

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by

## Brittany B.

on 10 August 2016

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#### Transcript of What is a Map?

What is a Map?
Globes and maps
Types of Maps
The Coordinate System:
Longitude and Latitude
1. Find each of the seven continents on the map:
North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica.

2. Find each of the oceans on the map:
Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.

To learn about the Earth, two tools you can use are globes and maps.
A
globe
is a model of the planet Earth as if seeing it from outer space. A globe is round and shows
continents
and
oceans
. There are seven continents on Earth and four oceans.
A map is a
model
of the Earth shown on a flat surface. Maps are useful because you can carry them with you.

Let’s look at a map more closely…
Elements on a Map
Every map has five important elements:
Compass Rose
Title
Legend/Key
Scale
Inset Map
Each element has a purpose:
The
compass rose
is a directional arrow that shows cardinal and sometimes intermediate directions on a map.
The
title
tells you the purpose of the map.
The
legend
shows you what symbols on the map mean.
The
scale
is shown in both standard and metric measurements and show distance between objects on the map.
The
inset map
is a smaller map that shows a “larger” area of land around the map.

See if you can identify the parts of the map:
Compass Rose
We can learn about directions by looking at a compass rose.

A compass rose is a circle that shows principle directions printed on the map.
It is used to display the orientation of cardinal and intermediate directions.
Why so many different maps?
Different
cartographers
(map-makers) use different
map projections.

Another reason for this difference is that maps can be created to represent different
features
of the same places.
Identify the symbols used in the key below:
One map of Europe might show only its
major cities
and
state capitals
.

Another might depict the country's different
vegetation zones.

Another map might show Europe’s
physical characteristics like rivers, mountains and deserts.
What differences do you see between these maps?

Do you see any similarities?
Political Maps
Look at the map on the right. Why is it so colorful?

Maps that show
countries, states, cities
, and
capitals
are known as
political maps
.

Physical Maps
Physical maps
show features of the Earth such as,
mountains, rivers, oceans,
and
forests.

What other physical features are located
on the map?

Thematic Maps
Historical maps

Climate maps

Natural resource maps

Land use maps

Population density maps

and more!
Give It A Try...
On many maps you see crisscrossing lines with numbers by them. These lines and numbers form a grid system that allows us to describe the
absolute
, or exact location of any place on Earth.

The lines running east to west around the Earth are called lines of
latitude
. They measure degrees
north and south
of the
equator
.
Longitude
The lines running north to south around the Earth are called lines of
longitude
. They measure degrees
east and west
of the
Prime Meridian.
The Coordinate System
Latitude
Together, lines of latitude and longitude form a grid system called the
coordinate system.
When you state the coordinates of a place on the Earth you are giving its
absolute location.

Absolute location is always written:
degrees North, then degrees West.
For example, the absolute location of New Orleans is 29º N, 090º W.
The map
scale
is used to show the relationship of
distance
shown on the map to
real
distance on the Earth.

Hemispheres
A
hemisphere
is half of a sphere, or ball.
People use the word to describe
one half
of Earth. Geographers, or people who study Earth, have divided the planet into two sets of two hemispheres. These are the
Northern
and
Southern
hemispheres and the
Eastern
and
Western
hemispheres.

Northern Hemisphere -
above
equator
Southern Hemisphere - below
equator
Eastern Hemisphere -
east
of Prime Meridian
Western Hemisphere - west of
Prime Meridian
Macon: 32º N, 83º W
Atlanta: 33º N, 84º W
Savannah: 32º N, 81º W

by Brittany Boulware
Scale
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