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Introduction to Film Studies
Transcript of Introduction to Film Studies
But had to use another companies Cinemas Benefits
Background sounds Motion picture producers recognize the high trust and confidence which have been placed in them by the people of the world and which have made motion pictures a universal form of entertainment.
They recognize their responsibility to the public because of this trust and because entertainment and art are important influences in the life of a nation.
Hence, though regarding motion pictures primarily as entertainment without any explicit purpose of teaching or propaganda, they know that the motion picture within its own field of entertainment may be directly responsible for spiritual or moral progress, for higher types of social life, and for much correct thinking.
During the rapid transition from silent to talking pictures they have realized the necessity and the opportunity of subscribing to a Code to govern the production of talking pictures and of re-acknowledging this responsibility.
On their part, they ask from the public and from public leaders a sympathetic understanding of their purposes and problems and a spirit of cooperation that will allow them the freedom and opportunity necessary to bring the motion picture to a still higher level of wholesome entertainment for all the people.
1. No picture shall be produced that will lower the moral standards of those who see it. Hence the sympathy of the audience should never be thrown to the side of crime, wrongdoing, evil or sin.
2. Correct standards of life, subject only to the requirements of drama and entertainment, shall be presented.
3. Law, natural or human, shall not be ridiculed, nor shall sympathy be created for its violation.
I. Crimes Against the Law
These shall never be presented in such a way as to throw sympathy with the crime as against law and justice or to inspire others with a desire for imitation.
a. The technique of murder must be presented in a way that will not inspire imitation.
b. Brutal killings are not to be presented in detail.
c. Revenge in modern times shall not be justified.
2. Methods of Crime should not be explicitly presented.
a. Theft, robbery, safe-cracking, and dynamiting of trains, mines, buildings, etc., should not be detailed in method.
b. Arson must subject to the same safeguards.
c. The use of firearms should be restricted to the essentials.
d. Methods of smuggling should not be presented.
3. Illegal drug traffic must never be presented.
4. The use of liquor in American life, when not required by the plot or for proper characterization, will not be shown.
The sanctity of the institution of marriage and the home shall be upheld. Pictures shall not infer that low forms of sex relationship are the accepted or common thing.
1. Adultery, sometimes necessary plot material, must not be explicitly treated, or justified, or presented attractively.
2. Scenes of Passion
a. They should not be introduced when not essential to the plot.
b. Excessive and lustful kissing, lustful embraces, suggestive postures and gestures, are not to be shown.
c. In general passion should so be treated that these scenes do not stimulate the lower and baser element.
3. Seduction or Rape
a. They should never be more than suggested, and only when essential for the plot, and even then never shown by explicit method.
b. They are never the proper subject for comedy.
4. Sex perversion or any inference to it is forbidden.
5. White slavery shall not be treated.
6. Miscegenation (sex relationships between the white and black races) is forbidden.
7. Sex hygiene and venereal diseases are not subjects for motion pictures.
8. Scenes of actual child birth, in fact or in silhouette, are never to be presented.
9. Children's sex organs are never to be exposed.
The treatment of low, disgusting, unpleasant, though not necessarily evil, subjects should always be subject to the dictates of good taste and a regard for the sensibilities of the audience.
Obscenity in word, gesture, reference, song, joke, or by suggestion (even when likely to be understood only by part of the audience) is forbidden.
Pointed profanity (this includes the words, God, Lord, Jesus, Christ - unless used reverently - Hell, S.O.B., damn, Gawd), or every other profane or vulgar expression however used, is forbidden.
1. Complete nudity is never permitted. This includes nudity in fact or in silhouette, or any lecherous or licentious notice thereof by other characters in the picture.
2. Undressing scenes should be avoided, and never used save where essential to the plot.
3. Indecent or undue exposure is forbidden.
4. Dancing or costumes intended to permit undue exposure or indecent movements in the dance are forbidden.
1. Dances suggesting or representing sexual actions or indecent passions are forbidden.
2. Dances which emphasize indecent movements are to be regarded as obscene.
1. No film or episode may throw ridicule on any religious faith.
2. Ministers of religion in their character as ministers of religion should not be used as comic characters or as villains.
3. Ceremonies of any definite religion should be carefully and respectfully handled.
The treatment of bedrooms must be governed by good taste and delicacy.
X. National Feelings
1. The use of the Flag shall be consistently respectful.
2. The history, institutions, prominent people and citizenry of other nations shall be represented fairly.
Salacious, indecent, or obscene titles shall not be used.
XII. Repellent Subjects
The following subjects must be treated within the careful limits of good taste:
1. Actual hangings or electrocutions as legal punishments for crime.
2. Third degree methods.
3. Brutality and possible gruesomeness.
4. Branding of people or animals.
5. Apparent cruelty to children or animals.
6. The sale of women, or a woman selling her virtue.
7. Surgical operations.
Reasons Supporting the Preamble of the Code
I. Theatrical motion pictures, that is, pictures intended for the theatre as distinct from pictures intended for churches, schools, lecture halls, educational movements, social reform movements, etc., are primarily to be regarded as ENTERTAINMENT.
Mankind has always recognized the importance of entertainment and its value in rebuilding the bodies and souls of human beings.
But it has always recognized that entertainment can be a character either HELPFUL or HARMFUL to the human race, and in consequence has clearly distinguished between:
a. Entertainment which tends to improve the race, or at least to re-create and rebuild human beings exhausted with the realities of life; and
b. Entertainment which tends to degrade human beings, or to lower their standards of life and living.
Hence the MORAL IMPORTANCE of entertainment is something which has been universally recognized. It enters intimately into the lives of men and women and affects them closely; it occupies their minds and affections during leisure hours; and ultimately touches the whole of their lives. A man may be judged by his standard of entertainment as easily as by the standard of his work.
So correct entertainment raises the whole standard of a nation.
Wrong entertainment lowers the whole living conditions and moral ideals of a race.
Note, for example, the healthy reactions to healthful sports, like baseball, golf; the unhealthy reactions to sports like cockfighting, bullfighting, bear baiting, etc.
Note, too, the effect on ancient nations of gladiatorial combats, the obscene plays of Roman times, etc.
II. Motion pictures are very important as ART.
Though a new art, possibly a combination art, it has the same object as the other arts, the presentation of human thought, emotion, and experience, in terms of an appeal to the soul through the senses.
Here, as in entertainment,
Art enters intimately into the lives of human beings.
Art can be morally good, lifting men to higher levels. This has been done through good music, great painting, authentic fiction, poetry, drama.
Art can be morally evil it its effects. This is the case clearly enough with unclean art, indecent books, suggestive drama. The effect on the lives of men and women are obvious.
Note: It has often been argued that art itself is unmoral, neither good nor bad. This is true of the THING which is music, painting, poetry, etc. But the THING is the PRODUCT of some person's mind, and the intention of that mind was either good or bad morally when it produced the thing. Besides, the thing has its EFFECT upon those who come into contact with it. In both these ways, that is, as a product of a mind and as the cause of definite effects, it has a deep moral significance and unmistakable moral quality.
Hence: The motion pictures, which are the most popular of modern arts for the masses, have their moral quality from the intention of the minds which produce them and from their effects on the moral lives and reactions of their audiences. This gives them a most important morality.
1. They reproduce the morality of the men who use the pictures as a medium for the expression of their ideas and ideals.
2. They affect the moral standards of those who, through the screen, take in these ideas and ideals.
In the case of motion pictures, the effect may be particularly emphasized because no art has so quick and so widespread an appeal to the masses. It has become in an incredibly short period the art of the multitudes.
III. The motion picture, because of its importance as entertainment and because of the trust placed in it by the peoples of the world, has special MORAL OBLIGATIONS:
A. Most arts appeal to the mature. This art appeals at once to every class, mature, immature, developed, undeveloped, law abiding, criminal. Music has its grades for different classes; so has literature and drama. This art of the motion picture, combining as it does the two fundamental appeals of looking at a picture and listening to a story, at once reaches every class of society.
B. By reason of the mobility of film and the ease of picture distribution, and because the possibility of duplicating positives in large quantities, this art reaches places unpenetrated by other forms of art.
C. Because of these two facts, it is difficult to produce films intended for only certain classes of people. The exhibitors' theatres are built for the masses, for the cultivated and the rude, the mature and the immature, the self-respecting and the criminal. Films, unlike books and music, can with difficulty be confined to certain selected groups.
D. The latitude given to film material cannot, in consequence, be as wide as the latitude given to book material. In addition:
a. A book describes; a film vividly presents. One presents on a cold page; the other by apparently living people.
b. A book reaches the mind through words merely; a film reaches the eyes and ears through the reproduction of actual events.
c. The reaction of a reader to a book depends largely on the keenness of the reader's imagination; the reaction to a film depends on the vividness of presentation.
Hence many things which might be described or suggested in a book could not possibly be presented in a film.
E. This is also true when comparing the film with the newspaper.
a. Newspapers present by description, films by actual presentation.
b. Newspapers are after the fact and present things as having taken place; the film gives the events in the process of enactment and with apparent reality of life.
F. Everything possible in a play is not possible in a film:
a. Because of the larger audience of the film, and its consequential mixed character. Psychologically, the larger the audience, the lower the moral mass resistance to suggestion.
b. Because through light, enlargement of character, presentation, scenic emphasis, etc., the screen story is brought closer to the audience than the play.
c. The enthusiasm for and interest in the film actors and actresses, developed beyond anything of the sort in history, makes the audience largely sympathetic toward the characters they portray and the stories in which they figure. Hence the audience is more ready to confuse actor and actress and the characters they portray, and it is most receptive of the emotions and ideals presented by the favorite stars.
G. Small communities, remote from sophistication and from the hardening process which often takes place in the ethical and moral standards of larger cities, are easily and readily reached by any sort of film.
H. The grandeur of mass settings, large action, spectacular features, etc., affects and arouses more intensely the emotional side of the audience.
In general, the mobility, popularity, accessibility, emotional appeal, vividness, straightforward presentation of fact in the film make for more intimate contact with a larger audience and for greater emotional appeal.
Hence the larger moral responsibilities of the motion pictures.
Reasons Underlying the General Principles
I. No picture shall be produced which will lower the moral standards of those who see it. Hence the sympathy of the audience should never be thrown to the side of crime, wrong-doing, evil or sin.
This is done:
1. When evil is made to appear attractive and alluring, and good is made to appear unattractive.
2. When the sympathy of the audience is thrown on the side of crime, wrongdoing, evil, sin. The same is true of a film that would thrown sympathy against goodness, honor, innocence, purity or honesty.
Note: Sympathy with a person who sins is not the same as sympathy with the sin or crime of which he is guilty. We may feel sorry for the plight of the murderer or even understand the circumstances which led him to his crime: we may not feel sympathy with the wrong which he has done. The presentation of evil is often essential for art or fiction or drama. This in itself is not wrong provided:
a. That evil is not presented alluringly. Even if later in the film the evil is condemned or punished, it must not be allowed to appear so attractive that the audience's emotions are drawn to desire or approve so strongly that later the condemnation is forgotten and only the apparent joy of sin is remembered.
b. That throughout, the audience feels sure that evil is wrong and good is right.
II. Correct standards of life shall, as far as possible, be presented.
A wide knowledge of life and of living is made possible through the film. When right standards are consistently presented, the motion picture exercises the most powerful influences. It builds character, develops right ideals, inculcates correct principles, and all this in attractive story form.
If motion pictures consistently hold up for admiration high types of characters and present stories that will affect lives for the better, they can become the most powerful force for the improvement of mankind.
III. Law, natural or human, shall not be ridiculed, nor shall sympathy be created for its violation.
By natural law is understood the law which is written in the hearts of all mankind, the greater underlying principles of right and justice dictated by conscience.
By human law is understood the law written by civilized nations.
1. The presentation of crimes against the law is often necessary for the carrying out of the plot. But the presentation must not throw sympathy with the crime as against the law nor with the criminal as against those who punish him.
2. The courts of the land should not be presented as unjust. This does not mean that a single court may not be presented as unjust, much less that a single court official must not be presented this way. But the court system of the country must not suffer as a result of this presentation.
Reasons Underlying the Particular Applications
I. Sin and evil enter into the story of human beings and hence in themselves are valid dramatic material.
II. In the use of this material, it must be distinguished between sin which repels by it very nature, and sins which often attract.
a. In the first class come murder, most theft, many legal crimes, lying, hypocrisy, cruelty, etc.
b. In the second class come sex sins, sins and crimes of apparent heroism, such as banditry, daring thefts, leadership in evil, organized crime, revenge, etc.
The first class needs less care in treatment, as sins and crimes of this class are naturally unattractive. The audience instinctively condemns all such and is repelled.
Hence the important objective must be to avoid the hardening of the audience, especially of those who are young and impressionable, to the thought and fact of crime. People can become accustomed even to murder, cruelty, brutality, and repellent crimes, if these are too frequently repeated.
The second class needs great care in handling, as the response of human nature to their appeal is obvious. This is treated more fully below.
III. A careful distinction can be made between films intended for general distribution, and films intended for use in theatres restricted to a limited audience. Themes and plots quite appropriate for the latter would be altogether out of place and dangerous in the former.
Note: The practice of using a general theatre and limiting its patronage to "Adults Only" is not completely satisfactory and is only partially effective.
However, maturer minds may easily understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which do younger people positive harm.
Hence: If there should be created a special type of theatre, catering exclusively to an adult audience, for plays of this character (plays with problem themes, difficult discussions and maturer treatment) it would seem to afford an outlet, which does not now exist, for pictures unsuitable for general distribution but permissible for exhibitions to a restricted audience.
I. Crimes Against the Law
The treatment of crimes against the law must not:
1. Teach methods of crime.
2. Inspire potential criminals with a desire for imitation.
3. Make criminals seem heroic and justified.
Revenge in modern times shall not be justified. In lands and ages of less developed civilization and moral principles, revenge may sometimes be presented. This would be the case especially in places where no law exists to cover the crime because of which revenge is committed.
Because of its evil consequences, the drug traffic should not be presented in any form. The existence of the trade should not be brought to the attention of audiences.
The use of liquor should never be excessively presented. In scenes from American life, the necessities of plot and proper characterization alone justify its use. And in this case, it should be shown with moderation.
Out of a regard for the sanctity of marriage and the home, the triangle, that is, the love of a third party for one already married, needs careful handling. The treatment should not throw sympathy against marriage as an institution.
Scenes of passion must be treated with an honest acknowledgement of human nature and its normal reactions. Many scenes cannot be presented without arousing dangerous emotions on the part of the immature, the young or the criminal classes.
Even within the limits of pure love, certain facts have been universally regarded by lawmakers as outside the limits of safe presentation.
In the case of impure love, the love which society has always regarded as wrong and which has been banned by divine law, the following are important:
1. Impure love must not be presented as attractive and beautiful.
2. It must not be the subject of comedy or farce, or treated as material for laughter.
3. It must not be presented in such a way to arouse passion or morbid curiosity on the part of the audience.
4. It must not be made to seem right and permissible.
5. It general, it must not be detailed in method and manner.
III. Vulgarity; IV. Obscenity; V. Profanity; hardly need further explanation than is contained in the Code.
1. The effect of nudity or semi-nudity upon the normal man or woman, and much more upon the young and upon immature persons, has been honestly recognized by all lawmakers and moralists.
2. Hence the fact that the nude or semi-nude body may be beautiful does not make its use in the films moral. For, in addition to its beauty, the effect of the nude or semi-nude body on the normal individual must be taken into consideration.
3. Nudity or semi-nudity used simply to put a "punch" into a picture comes under the head of immoral actions. It is immoral in its effect on the average audience.
4. Nudity can never be permitted as being necessary for the plot. Semi-nudity must not result in undue or indecent exposures.
5. Transparent or translucent materials and silhouette are frequently more suggestive than actual exposure.
Dancing in general is recognized as an art and as a beautiful form of expressing human emotions.
But dances which suggest or represent sexual actions, whether performed solo or with two or more; dances intended to excite the emotional reaction of an audience; dances with movement of the breasts, excessive body movements while the feet are stationary, violate decency and are wrong.
The reason why ministers of religion may not be comic characters or villains is simply because the attitude taken toward them may easily become the attitude taken toward religion in general. Religion is lowered in the minds of the audience because of the lowering of the audience's respect for a minister.
Certain places are so closely and thoroughly associated with sexual life or with sexual sin that their use must be carefully limited.
X. National Feelings
The just rights, history, and feelings of any nation are entitled to most careful consideration and respectful treatment.
As the title of a picture is the brand on that particular type of goods, it must conform to the ethical practices of all such honest business.
XII. Repellent Subjects
Such subjects are occasionally necessary for the plot. Their treatment must never offend good taste nor injure the sensibilities of an audience. Who are you?
What is your favourite film?
What is your worst film?
Why are you here? Introduction to Film Studies What is a How has film changed? L'Arroseur Arrosé (Lumiere Bros 1895) Iron Man (John Favreau 2008) In pairs, go through the list of films at the back of the booklet and highlight those you have seen. What is the main difference between the two posters?
What does each poster tell us about the film?
What does each poster tell us about the year?
How important is the audience to both films?
How important is technology to the posters?
Which one "sells" to you and why? Early Hollywood and Stars How does Film work? Part 1: Camera and Mise-en-Scene Part 2: Editing and Sound How does Film work? Film and Genre Film and Narrative Social and Political Analysis Film Institutions and Futures Early Cinema How can Early Cinema help us to understand contemporary Film? Early types of Film
Early production techniques
Shift from spectacle to narrative
Changes in production practices 1912 MPAA founded
Copyright granted for Film
1920s Christian Right/Scandal/Prohibition
1930 Hays Code (Censorship) Thomas Edison and Patents
Early Film Pirates
Moving East to West Sit in mixed groups and discuss what films you have seen in the week... Film in the US Total film Budget £7.13s9d
Hepworth hired real actors -10/6 fee
first use of artificial light
Kidnapping theme repeated
The Kidnappers (1903)
Weary Willie Kidnaps a Child (1904)
Stolen by Gipsies (1905) Rescued By Rover (1905) Cecil Hepworth In Pairs, what do the following jobs involve?
What would your salary be? Mise-en-Scene (everything in the frame) Lighting
NVC (Non Verbal Communication) Licensing $20m
Below the line $45m
Special Effects $65
Prints and Marketing $75m Spiderman 2 Budget $275m £171m (127mins) = £1,34645.66 per min
24 frames per second - 127x24=3048 = £5610pf Every Frame Counts! Camera Movement
Extreme Close up Close Up Mid-Close Up Mid Shot Long Shot Extreme long Shot (establishing) High Angle Low Angle Canted Angle Camera
Angles Track Pan Tilt Zoom Lighting & Colour Costume and Make Up Costume and
Make Up Setting NVC (Body Language) NVC (Body Language) NVC (Body Language) Props (properties) German Expressionism Shadow and Light Composition Rule of Thirds Broadway Film Quiz
James Bond Special
Tuesday 30th October
8.30 onwards Cut Cross Dissolve Wipe Fade to Black Editing Transitions Graphic Match Montage Kuleshov Experiment Diegetic & Non-Diegetic Sound The Jazz Singer (1927) Blackmail (1929) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTFCctdiS04http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTFCctdiS04 Soundtrack
Narration Parallel Sound Contrapuntal Sound Continuity Time & Space Editing & Special Effects Best Boy
There are two types of best boys: electrical and grip. Best boy electric is the gaffer's assistant. (See gaffer definition.) There is also a best boy grip. A best boy grip assists the key grip. (See grip definition).
Salary - £34-35,000 ($52,000) Boom Operator
A boom operator assists the production sound mixer. They are in charge of ensuring clear dialogue and sound for a movie. The boom operator uses a long pole called a boom pole in order for microphones to be held out of the view of the cameras and still ensure that the actors are heard clearly.
£45-46,000 ($69,000) Foley Artist
Foley artists use whatever they can find to create and record the noises used to make the sound effects in films, like heavy footsteps, rolling thunder or creaking doors. If you're more interested in mixing music than sound effects, look into a job as a sound engineering technician.
£36,000 ($55,000) Gaffer
A gaffer, or lighting technician, is the chief electrician. A gaffer manages the entire electrical department. The electrical staff's main responsibility is lighting.
£18-20,000 ($28,000) Greensman
The greensman is a specialist who decides how and where to place plants and greenery in the film scenes.
£15,000 ($23,000) Grip
A grip's concern is lighting. Grips make sure the lighting is just right for a movie scene. They will set up filters or blocks in front of lights or the sun to make sure the lighting is optimal. Grips also set up ladders and other large objects when needed, move scenery, and sometimes operate camera dollies.
£ 29-52,000 ($45-80,000) Propsmaster
A propsmaster or property master has to locate all of the props that are needed for a movie. A propsmaster has a team of assistants.
A casting director is responsible for helping to gather a number of actor candidates for a given role in a film or television production. The casting director reads the script and meets with the producer, director and sometimes the writer, to get an idea of the "type" of person a given role calls for. Once this is determined, then the casting director sets to work. They will meet with any number of individuals and begin narrowing down the field. Once a handful of hopefuls have been identified, the casting director then presents them to the director, producer or writer of the project.
£3,000-£6,000 pw ($5-10,000) pw Producer
Producers are the main players in the television, film and video industries. The initial idea for a project often comes from a producer, who will oversee each project from conception to completion and may also be involved in the marketing and distribution processes. A producer or executive producer is required to report directly to the client. Producers work closely with directors and the other production staff on the shoot. Increasingly, they need to have directing skills themselves as it is likely that the producer will also be the director and take care of all project operations. Producers arrange funding for each project and are responsible for keeping the production within the allocated budget.
£23-66,000 ($35,000-$100,000) Runner
Runner is an entry-level position, the most junior role in the production department of a broadcast, film or video company. There is no single job description as runners act as general assistants and undertake whatever basic tasks are required to ensure the smooth running of the production process. Runners’ general responsibilities include tea making, transporting scripts and hire equipment, taking messages, looking after guests, and getting everything in place for shoots.
£7-8 ph Focus Puller
In cinematography, a focus puller or first assistant camera (1 AC) is the member of a film crew responsible for keeping the camera's focus right during a shoot. Often this requires pulling the focus with a follow focus device during the take without looking through the camera (the camera operator is doing that), to compensate for camera or subject movement. Most people on the set will agree that the focus puller's job is the most technically difficult of any during production.
£14-15,000 ($22,000) Clapper/Loader
The loader is the designated film loader. He transfer's motion picture film from the manufacturer's light-tight canisters to the camera magazines for attachment to the camera by the 1st AC. After exposure during filming, the loader then removes the film from the magazines and places it back into the light-tight cans for transport to the laboratory. It is the responsibility of the loader to manage the inventory of film and communicate with the 1st AC on the film usage and remaining stock throughout the day. On small production crews, this job is often combined with the 2nd AC. With the prevalence of digital photography, this position is often eliminated.
£21,000 ($32,000) Director
The Director is responsible for overseeing the creative aspects of a film, including controlling the content and flow of the film's plot, directing the performances of actors, organizing and selecting the locations in which the film will be shot, and managing technical details such as the positioning of cameras, the use of lighting, and the timing and content of the film's soundtrack. Though the director wields a great deal of power, he or she is ultimately subordinate to the film's producer or producers. Some directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a producer, and the distinction between the two roles is sometimes blurred.
£20-92,000 ($30-140,000) Director of Photography
The director of photography is the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DoP makes decisions on lighting and framing of scenes in conjunction with the film's director. Typically, the director tells the DoP how he or she wants the film to look, and the DoP then chooses the correct aperture, filter, and lighting to achieve the desired effect.
£46,000 ($70,000) Continuity Supervisor
Coordinates activities of continuity department of radio or television station: Assigns duties to staff and freelance writers. Supervises staff writers preparing program continuity and scripts for broadcasting, and edits material to ensure conformance with company policy, laws, and regulations. May read book or script of television programs and commercials or view and listen to videotapes to detect and recommend deletion of vulgar, immoral, libelous, or misleading statements, applying knowledge of Federal Communications Commission and station standards and regulations.
£59,000 ($90,000) Pyrotechnician
Pyrotechnics effects specialists are experts with firearms and explosives. They create explosions for dramatic scenes. This work can be very dangerous. Most states require them to be licensed to handle and set off explosives.
£19-35,000 ($30-54,000) 1923 - H.J. Whitley
1949 - Changed to 'Hollywood' Production Distribution Adolph Zukor Famous Players - Lasky
Paramount Picture Studios
Actors/Directors Print Production
Negotiation Vertical Integration Metro Pictures
Goldwyn Pictures Corp
Louis B. Mayer Pictures The Big Five The Little Three Exhibition The Studio System Developing an idea
Writing a script
Post-producing Acquires the rights to the film
Decides/negotiates a release date
Delivers prints to the cinema
Provides trailers and publicity material
Provides publicity and advertising material
Negotiates promotional and merchandising deals Own Cinema Chains
TV + Video Worked in a very industrial way
Films were made on a “Production Line”
everyone having a specific role and responsibility.
Stars were full time employees and had little control over their roles.
A director would have little choice about the films he worked on.
Scriptwriters could be kept in house
Ensured control and financial benefit What went wrong.... 1938 - Federal Anti-Trust Action (Paramount Case)
Some studios could not compete
Problems equipping for sound
Typecasting Carl Laemmle Independent Moving Pictures Company of America 1909 - The First Star
Previously known as the 'Biograph Girl' 1953:The Hollywood Chamber of Commerce
E. M. Stuart 1 The Star as 'Capital Value'
2 The Star as Construct
3 The Star as Deviant
4 The Star as Cultural Sign
5 The Star as gaze Five Approaches to Stars Type Casting The Director as 'Star'
or Auteur Audiences familiar with previous roles
Some found transition to sound difficult
Sex and Drug scandals
Hollywood Blacklist 1947 - House Committee on Un-American Activities Half Way Point Quiz 1.What was the original name of Hollywood? 2.Who was the first film star? 3.What type of shot is this? 4.Name one aspect of mise-en-scene? 5.What is diegetic sound? 6.Who originally experimented into the effects of film editing? 7.Why did film makers leave New York for the west? 8. What is argued to be the first film screened to an audience? 9.What was the Hays Code? 10. What does a Foley Artist do? Genre (pronounced zhahnr) noun - 1 a particular kind of art or style of literature. 2 painting of scenes from ordinary life Refers to different TYPES of films Andre Bazin why do these films look the same?
was this an industry issue?
how do audiences respond to this? The Studio System Film Stars - Typecasting Marketing & Promotion How to recognize a Genre of film Generic Conventions Settings
Narrative (Story) Science Fiction
Western Genres evolve over time
Reflect changing Audiences, changing times
and industry practices How many Genres can you name? Hybrids (Juxtaposition, Bricolage, ) Postmodernism – can anything new be created? Steve Neale – “Repetition and Difference” – audience expectations how will this film end? Are genres limited by Industry Logic? Can you invent a new genre? Storytelling In small groups - come up with a simple story for a new film - it can be based on anything! Narrative Archetypes The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless individual (Samson and Delilah, Othello, Superman and Fatal Attraction). This narrative is used extensively in the crime genre when the flaw belongs to the villain not the hero. Achilles The innocent abroad, naïve optimism, triumphant hero battling against adversity (Chariots of Fire, Forrest Gump, Indiana Jones, James Bond and Mr. Bean) Candide Cinderella A dream come true, unrecognised virtue realised at last: goodness triumphant after being initially despised. (Pretty Woman, Rocky, Strictly Ballroom, Star Wars, Little Miss Sunshine) Circe The chase; the spider and the fly: the innocent and the victim; the temptress ensnaring the love struck male (Godfather 1, Othello, Double Indemnity, Body Heat, Speed, Mission Impossible 3) Faust Be careful for what you wish for! Selling your soul to the devil may bring initial riches, but eventually there is a price to be paid. The uncovered secret that catches up with you and damns us; the inescapability of fate (Wall Street, Fatal Attraction, horror genre, Jurassic Park) Orpheus The gift taken away, the loss of something personal. Either about the loss itself or the search which follows the loss (Flightplan, Kingpin, Rain Man, Jason and the Argonauts) Romeo & Juliet Boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy finds girl again etc etc etc (Titanic, Sleepless in Seattle, When Harry Met Sally) Tristan Triangles (external or otherwise); man loves women and unfortunately one of them is spoken for (Fatal Attraction) Structural Approaches to Narrative Suggested that all narratives follow a similar pattern; they begin with an equilibrium (a state of normality or balance) this is disrupted by some event, setting in motion a series of other events which are eventually resolved to allow a return to a state of equilibrium (although not necessarily the same one that existed at the beginning). Tzvetan Todorov (equilibrium theory) Vladimir Propp (Narrative Functions) Equilibrium Disruption New Equilibrium Propp examined hundreds of examples of “folk” or “fairy” tales and argued that whatever their surface differences were it was possible to group characters and actions into: •The villain
•The hero - the character who seeks something – not necessarily one who acts heroically
•The donor - who provides an object with some magic property
•The helper – who aids the hero
•The princess - reward for the hero and the object of the villain’s schemes
•The father – who rewards the hero
•The dispatcher - who sends the hero on his way
•The false hero Apply Propp's Narrative functions to either
James Bond Films
Disney/Pixar Films Claude Levi-Strauss (Binary Oppositions) Levi-Strauss was an anthropologist who was particularly interested in studying myths and legends. He argued that all societies tell stories to resolve contradictions which, in reality, cannot be resolved. He proposed that these myths (and by extension narratives) are structured around binary oppositions that are significant for the particular society or culture. Law vs Disorder
Male vs Female
Individual vs Town/community
Civilisation vs Wilderness
Strong vs Weak
Sid Field’s narrative research led to the use of plot points in the narrative to create key moments that allow the audience to move from act one to act two of the story. Plot Points Act One Act Two Act Three Set up Confrontation Resolution Plot Point One Plot Point
Two external invader (event) internal resolution Structural Anthropology Ancient Cultures
and Storytelling Colonial History Myth Pitch your idea
what Narrative Archetype is it?
Who are your Propp's characters?
What are your binary oppositions?
Where is your equilibrium and disruption? Transmedia Storytelling Piracy New Technology - 3D Convergence & Synergy Homework
Watch a second film on the handbook list
Apply what you have learned over the last 9 weeks
Come next week prepared to share your thoughts Micro Analysis Macro Analysis Camera Analysis
Themes Discourse Analysis
History The Frankfurt School Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economist turned philosopher
Society as evolving system
Communism Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Analysis of Culture
Hidden meanings in the Arts
Politics and Propaganda
World War 1&2 Hidden Meanings
Signs Symbols propaganda 1938 Broadcast
'War of the Worlds' War of the Worlds (1953)
Outer Space (other)
Technology War of the Worlds (2005)
Technology Conscious Meaning/Interpretation Un-Conscious Meaning/Interpretation Documentary Film Narrative Fiction Film Different Times
Same Film/Character? James Bond 1964-2010 Goldfinger & Casino Royale But what stays the same? Battleship Potemkin 1930s Depression, Crime, musicals, Women's rights, nazi fears (UK) 1940s War, race, move west migration, communism, Moral boosting films 1950s Melodrama, post-war anxiety, women back in the home, communism, anti-bureaucracy (UK) 1960s Communism (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Sexuality, generational angst (Clockwork Orange) drugs, Kennedy Assassination 1970s Vietnam (Apocalypse Now) Feminism, Watergate (All the Presidents Men) and politics, civil rights 1980s The spread of Aids (David Cronenburg Horror movies), Baby Boomers (Baby Boom) Thatcherism & Reganism, (High Hopes & Wall Street) Finance. 1990s Issues surrounding the Gulf War, (Three Kings) The growth in Environmentalism, (Dante's Peak, Volcano) Domestic Terrorism (True Lies) Pre-Millennium fears (The Matrix) 2000s? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis Dream Analysis If we evolved-what happened to the animal? Free Association Rorschach Test What was the last dream you can remember? Big family of 10
What drives people?
Charles Darwin Elongated objects
Items that expand
Caves Freudian Symbols Franchises and Re-boots Terminator 3 (2003 Dir: Jonathan Mostow) •What Freudian symbols are evident?
•How are they used?
•What effect does the space have to the scene?
•Consider the social political context here - what does it say about gender? Repression: the more primitive drives (including the oedipal complex) are actively repressed by our unconscious. However sometimes they come out on screen. Castration anxiety: the male desire to sleep with their mothers can only be stopped by castration (by the father) this leads to castration anxiety - a fear of loss. Oedipal Complex: put simply all men wish to kill their fathers and sleep with their mothers; for women the reverse is true but it's called the Electra complex Oedipal Trajectory
This is the idea that all narratives involve a central character (usually male) going on a quest to get something he is lacking (castration)
This narrative reflects the oedipal instinct- often the hero's reward is a women (mother) but only after defeating a bad guy (father figure) Jean Louis-Baudry, Christian Metz and Laura Mulvey
Found the Psychoanalytic school of Film Studies (1970s)
Use Freudian ideas to analyse film
Treat film as if it was a dream
Uncover repressed anxieties on part of producer and audience The Perverts Guide to Cinema (2006) Slavoj Zizek Castration Anxiety: Electra Complex
The female audience have to contend with a sense of ‘lack’ i.e not having a penis. This can result in alignment with female characters involved in a oedipal trajectory story arc – living up to desired stereotypes What if Freud was wrong? ID – earliest part to develop – primitive urges
Ego – reality principle – how to operate in society
Super-Ego – discipline/punishment (parents) What have we learned? Star Trek 2
Iron Man 3
Fast and the Furious 6
Man of Steel
Robocop A lot of current research is into the business of film
How do film-makers come up with ideas?
•Pre-existing intellectual property
•Marketing potential What could be the next re-boot? The Chinese Market How is this likely to change film production? limits piracy
Films produced for a wider audience Reboots.... Casino Royale
Jason Bourne £531 million losses?
MPPA & US government regulating global distribution
New distribution platforms
New legal restrictions
UK - It Begins with the Audience report
Cinema still strong - 3D? faster distribution
digital copies - ultraviolet
no hard copies? Choice fatigue
Does piracy change the way the film is watched?
Why are certain films pirated? Higher ticket prices
Exhibition business model
Cinema of attractions
TV and glasses free technology
Different Aesthetics Single technology offers multimedia
Greater cross promotion
Portals and Hubs (amazon)