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Natural Resrouces and Renewable Energy

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Elizabeth Clark

on 16 September 2016

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Transcript of Natural Resrouces and Renewable Energy

Natural Resources and Alternative Energy
Hydroelectric
Generation of electricity using flowing water (typically from a reservoir held behind a dam or other barrier) to drive a turbine that powers a generator.

Cool Fact: Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power.



Geothermal
Produced by the internal heat of the Earth

Nuclear Power
Not on your notes, but another renewable form of energy!


When you finish...
Click on any of the following games,
Make sure to press "esc" to get out of full screen.


http://www.wonderville.ca/asset/save-the-world

http://climatekids.nasa.gov/power-up/

https://fuse.education.vic.gov.au/pages/View.aspx?id=694b44cb-955f-4da0-9d31-359310622bea

http://www.energyhog.org/childrens.htm

http://electrocity.co.nz/
Alternative Energy: Solar Power
Photovoltaic (PV) cells on the solar panel convert sunlight directly into electricity
The electricity passes through a transformer and then goes to a breaker
It’s then sent out to the rest of the house

How do we make electricity?
2. There are three states of matter: _________, ________, and _________

3. There are three types of fossil fuels:
1. Coal (solid)
2. Petroleum/Oil (liquid)
3. Natural Gas (gas)

4.
Where Fossil Fuels Come From?
All Fossil Fuels (FFs) are made from the remains of once living things. These remains collect over a long period of time and build up in a certain area. Over time, and with pressure, FFs are formed.

COAL
Coal is found in places that were once swamps. There are four different types:
Problems With Coal
- Very dirty (to touch and to burn)
- Hard to get to
- Inefficient
~75% of power made from coal is lost before it gets to the consumer (person who uses it)
- Burning it makes lots of greenhouse gases
- Does damage to mine workers, the land and environment around the mine, and the air
- Releases sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides that make acid rain

Petroleum/Oil
-Found in places that were once oceans
-Made from decayed sea life
-Used to make lots of stuff: all plastics, oils and greases, synthetics
-Not as dirty as coal, but still dirty
-Limited Supply –it’s running out!
-People fight over it -a lot.


8. Uses for Petroleum:
Cosmetics, Ballpoint pens, Toothpaste Rubber sneakers, Glue, Plastics

10. What country consumes the most oil? Second most? Least?

11. How Long Will it Last?
According to OPEC, the 2012 remaining crude oil reserves in the entire world amount to about 1477 billion barrels. This is an estimate. According to the EIA, the world uses about 89 million barrels of oil each day. That means that at current rates of consumption, we’ve got about ______ years of oil use left.

At least give a shot! Dragon $ if you get it!
Natural Gas
-Made in the same places as we make oil
-Made from the same decaying sea life as oil
-Cleanest burning of the three fossil fuels
-More efficient: Only about 10% of energy lost!
-Still a LIMITED resource!


What is Fracking?
Hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” is a way of getting natural gas by way of deep well drilling. Once a well is drilled, millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are injected, under high pressure, into a well. The pressure fractures the shale and props open fissures that enable natural gas to flow more freely out of the well.
Advantages to Solar Power:
-Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution.
-In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place.
-Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping your home energy bills.

Disadvantages to Solar Power
-Doesn't work at night.
-Very expensive to build solar power stations - solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of electricity they'll produce in their lifetime.
-Can be unreliable unless you're in a very sunny climate. In the United Kingdom, solar power isn't much use for high-power applications, as you need a large area of solar panels to get a decent amount of power.

Advantages to Hydroelectric
-Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free.

-No waste or pollution produced.

-Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power.

-Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand.

-Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations.

-Electricity can be generated constantly.

Disadvantages to Hydroelectric
- The dams are very expensive to build

- Building a large dam will flood a large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there


Advantages to Geothermal
:

-Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.

-The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment.

-No fuel is needed.

-Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free.

Disadvantages to Geothermal:

- There are not many places where you can build a geothermal power station. You need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth where we can drill down to them.

- The type of rock above is also important, it must be of a type that we can easily drill through.
Sometimes a geothermal site may "run out of steam", perhaps for decades.

-Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of.

We start with fossil fuels….
1. which is burned to heat the water
2. to turn the turbines
3. to turn the generator
4. which move the electricity made into transformers
5. that send electricity out into the “grid.”

2. There are three states of matter.
_______ , _______, _______

3. And there are three types of fossil fuels:
-Coal (solid, an organic sedimentary rock)
-Petroleum/Oil (liquid)
-Natural Gas (gas)

Wind Power
Wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity.
Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above ground, they can take advantage of faster and less turbulent wind.
Wind turbines can be used to produce electricity for a single home or building, or they can be connected to an electricity grid (shown here) for more widespread electricity distribution.

Advantages:
- Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel.
- Produces no waste or greenhouse gases.
-The land beneath can usually still be used for farming.
-Wind farms can be tourist attractions.
-A good method of supplying energy to remote areas.

Disadvantages:
-The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind.
-Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive.
-Some people feel that covering the landscape with these towers is unsightly.
-Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds
-Can affect television reception if you live nearby.
-Can be noisy.

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