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Soc 235, Lecture 19
Transcript of Soc 235, Lecture 19
1. How does democracy and civil society
depend on the nation-state system?
2. How is globalization challenging the
3. What consequences does this have for the organization of civil society today?
Civil Society and the Nation-state
ideas about civil society and democracy developed during the
International system of nation-states, where the world is divided up into territorially distinct units, in which each state has control over its own territory
at the level of discourse, the key distinction is between citizen and foreigner
Every person belongs to one and only one nation
International law regulates how different states are to interact, and resolve conflicts
vs. human rights
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
League of Nations, 1919-1946
How does this first modernity influence civil society?
Fusion of citizen and nation means that association activity is largely directed toward the nation
Otherness is defined as foreignness, and inherently anti-civil
Public spheres (and their news media) develop along national lines
Incorporation of civil society into the nation-bounded welfare state
How is globalization changing and
challenging the nation-state system?
Beck refers to this as the rise of
national boundaries become less significant because of
otherness becomes normalized
Dual citizenship, international travel, diaspora communities, transnational marriages
Primacy of international law is challenged
by a discourse of human rights
Globalization and second modernity does not mean that the nation-state disappears, but that there are two competing discourses of civil society
Civil Society during Second Modernity
Rise of international civil society organizations (INGO's), committed to human rights
Rise of global public spheres, which publicize distant suffering and emphasize the need to act to protect human rights
Cosmopolitan values challenge national values, leading to changes in the discourse of civil society
Defensive nationalism as a force of counter-mobilization
States rely on “fake cosmopolitanism” to pursue their own national interests
1. According the Beck, during the age of first modernity the concept of society (according to the mainstream) is applicable only to _________.
a) the family; b) the city; c) the nation-state
2. True or False: According the Beck, in the second age of modernity, cosmopolitans argue that the principle of human rights is more important than the principle of international law and national sovereignty
a) true; b) false
3. Which of the following is NOT an empirical indicator of cosmopolitanization, according to Beck?
a) ecological crisis; b) military conflicts between countries; c) transnational news coverage