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Transcript of 09 Jackson
Where did he live?
Jackson was born in Waxhaw, a region
along the border of the North and South Carolina colonies. In 1788 he
moved to Nashville, Tennessee, which was still a part of North Carolina.
There he built a mansion called the Hermitage. He lived in Washington as
president, then retired to the Hermitage, where he died.
Election of 1828
Tariff of Abominations
States Rights Debate
Attacking the Bank
The Rise of Whigs
A period of expanding democracy and voting rights in the 1820s and 1830s .
Many states lowered or eliminated the requirement that men own land in order to vote or hold office and political parties began holding public nominating conventions, where party members, choose the party’s candidates.
Jackson received a scar from a British officer as a boy.
In the early years of the United States, the right to vote belonged mainly to a few... free white men who owned property. As the country grew, more men were given the right to vote. This expansion of democracy led to the election of Andrew Jackson, a war hero. America in the early 1800s was changing fast. In the North, large-scale factories were replacing small workshops and in the South small
family farms began to give way to large cotton plantations worked by enslaved African Americans. Wealth seemed to be concentrating into fewer hands. Many ordinary Americans felt left behind. There was a growing belief that the wealthy were tightening their grip on power in the United States. Hoping for change, small farmers, frontier settlers, and slaveholders rallied behind reform-minded Andrew Jackson who they
believed would defend the rights of the common people and the slave states.
What did he do?
Jackson had no formal education, but he taught himself law and became a successful lawyer. He became Tennessee’s first representative to the U.S. Congress and also served in the Senate. Jackson became a national hero when his forces defeated the Creek and Seminole Indians. He went on to battle the British in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. Jackson was elected as the nation’s seventh president in 1828 and served until 1837.
Why is he so important?
Jackson’s belief in a strong presidency made him both
loved and hated. He vetoed as many bills as the six previous presidents
together. Jackson also believed in a strong Union. When South Carolina tried
to ify, or reject, a federal tariff, he threatened to send troops into the state to
force it to obey.
Jackson Presidency 4:09
Jackson’s supporters saw his victory as a win for the common people and Jackson rewarded some of his
supporters with government jobs… a practice known as the “Spoils System”… “to the victor goes the spoils”
Spoils System – the practice of giving government jobs to political backers.
Some who did not get positions in his official Cabinet still remained part of an inner circle of informal advisors called his “Kitchen Cabinet”
Kitchen Cabinet - an informal group of trusted advisers who sometimes met in the White House kitchen.
Jackson Bio 3:05
Even though Americans had a new feeling of national unity, different sections of the country still had very different interests. The industrial North competed with the agricultural South and the western frontier. As Congress favored one section over another, political differences also grew. Sectionalism – different regions of the countries having very different interests. - During the 1820’s we see the emergence of sectional differences
Tariffs became an regional issue before Jackson took office. In 1827, the year before Jackson’s election, northern manufacturers began to demand a tariff on imported woolen goods. Northerners wanted the tariff because British companies were driving American ones out of business with their inexpensive manufactured goods. Southerners opposed the tariff, saying it would hurt their economy. Before Andrew Jackson took office, Congress placed a high tariff on imports, Angry southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations. (An abomination is a hateful thing.)Tariff of Abominations – high tariff placed on imported goods that outraged southerners and helped lead to John Q. Adams defeat and added fuel to the growing sectional differences plaguing the young nation.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of Abominations 1:40
Introduction to Jackson 4:35
Reinventing the Presidency
What were the intentions of the Founding Fathers regarding the power and role of the president?
Who did they think should dominate the federal government?
How was the president initially selected?
What tactics did Jackson use to rally supporters?
Why did Jackson believe the president should dominate the federal government?
Reinventing the Presidency - Part1 4:43
What is the spoils System?
How does Jackson use the presidential veto? How did this fit with his new vision of the presidency?
What did the Founding Fathers think of political parties? Why?
How did Jackson benefit from the Democratic Party?
Why, at times, does Congress fail to check the power of the president?
Reinventing the Presidency - Part2 4:30
The Corporations 4:48
What was Jackson's economic vision for America?
What was Jackson specifically worried about??
What warning did Jackson issue in his farewell address?
Bank Wars 3:30
Why did Jackson distrust corporations?
What did Jackson dislike about the Second Bank of the United States?
Why did Jackson veto the bill rechartering the Bank of the United States?
What problem was John C. Calhoun obsessed with?
What difficulties did southern planters and slaveholders face?
What was nullification?
What did Jackson say at the Jefferson birthday celebration?
What was his stance on nullification?
How did Jackson attempt to solve the nullification issue?
What did Jackson argue in his proclamation?
How was civil war finally averted?
Andrew Jackson Good Evil and The Presidency 1:55:00
Nullification - P1 3:38
Nullification - P2 3:11
STATES RIGHTS DEBATE
The debate about states’
rights began early in our
nation’s history. Thomas
Jefferson and James Madison
supported the states’ power to disagree with the federal government in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798–99. But Calhoun’s theory went further. He believed that states could judge whether a law was or was not constitutional.
Some argued that nullification gave states a way to lawfully protest against federal legislation.
Others like Daniel Webster of Massachusetts argued that the United States was one nation, not a pact among independent states. He believed that the welfare of the nation should override that of individual states.
Early in his political career, Vice President John C. Calhoun had supported the idea that a strong central government was needed. But in 1828 when Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations, Calhoun joined his fellow southerners in protest. Economic depression and previous tariffs had severely damaged the economy of his home state, South Carolina. It was only beginning to recover in 1828. Some leaders in the state even spoke of leaving the Union over the issue of tariffs.
JOHN C. CALHOUN
Nullification is the belief that states could judge whether a law was or was not constitutional. This position put the power of the Supreme Court in question and was in opposition to the decision of Marbury v Madison.
South Carolina’s Nullification Act - declared that the 1828 and 1832 tariffs were “, void…[and not] binding upon this State, its officers or citizens.” South Carolina threatened to withdraw from the Union if federal troops were used to collect duties. The legislature also voted to form its own army. Jackson was enraged.
Force Bill – congress gave Jackson the approval to use force against South Carolina if it resisted enforcement of federal tarrifs.
Henry Clay to the rescue again… Clay proposed a compromise that would lower the tariff little by little over several years and both the U.S. Congress and South Carolina moved quickly to approve the compromise to avoid armed conflict.
In the final year of his second term Jackson tried to slow inflation. He required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" (gold or silver coins). The result was a great demand for specie, which many banks did not have enough of to exchange for their notes. These banks collapsed. This was a direct cause of the Panic of 1837, which threw the national economy into a deep depression. It took years for the economy to recover from the damage.
President Jackson is the only president in United States history to have paid off the national debt. However, this accomplishment was short lived. A severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a
ten-fold increase in national debt within its first year.
Even though Jackson was still very popular with voters in 1836 he chose not to run and the Democrats nominated his Vice President Martin Van Buren but not without opposition…
The Whig Party was formed in opposition to the authoritarian policies of “King Andrew”… President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. This party would later lead to the modern Republican party via the whig leader, Abraham Lincoln.
WHIGS - This name was chosen to echo the
American Whigs of 1776, who fought for
independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely
recognized label of choice for people who identified as
The Whig Party counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the Whig Party also nominated war hero generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was the chief Whig leader in frontier Illinois.
The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow the expansion of slavery to the territories. With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the re-nomination of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election; instead, the party nominated General Winfield Scott. Most Whig party leaders thereupon quit politics (as Lincoln did temporarily) or changed parties. The northern
voter base mostly joined the new Republican Party.
Election of 1836
Unable to agree on a candidate, the Whigs chose four men to run against Van Buren. Because of this indecision, and with backing from Jackson, Van Buren won the election.
Panic of 1837
Shortly after Van Buren took office, the country experienced the Panic of 1837, a severe economic depression. Jackson’s banking policies and his unsuccessful plan to curb inflation contributed to the panic. But people blamed Van Buren.
Election of 1840
In 1840 the Whigs united against the weakened Van Buren to stand behind one candidate, William Henry Harrison, an army general. Harrison won in an electoral landslide. The Whigs had achieved their goal of winning the presidency.
Political Party Heritage...
Indian Removal Act - In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law. As its name implies, the purpose of the act was to remove Native Americans from land that white settlers wanted for themselves. Five tribes were forced to leave their traditional lands and walk to a territory west of the Mississippi River.
Black Hawk War - Chief Black Hawk, a leader of Fox and Sauk Indians, decided to fight rather than leave Illinois. By 1832, however, the Sauk forces were running out of food and supplies, and by 1850 they had been forced to leave.
Trail of Tears – Georgia ignored the ruling and in the spring of 1838, U.S. troops began to remove all Cherokee to Indian Territory. A few were able to escape and hide in the mountains of North Carolina. After the Cherokee were removed, Georgia took their businesses, farms, and property. The Cherokee’s 800-mile forced march became known as the Trail of Tears. During the march, the Cherokee suffered from disease, hunger, and harsh weather. Almost one-fourth of the 18,000 Cherokee died on the march.
Worcester v Georgia - The Court ruled that the Cherokee nation was a distinct community in which the laws of Georgia had no force. The Court also stated that only the federal government, not the states, had authority over Native Americans.Jackson did NOTHING… in fact he said, “John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.” In a different time this could have been grounds for impeachment because it is the Executive Branch’s job to enforce and protect the Constitution.
Cherokee - Many Cherokee had believed that they could prevent conflicts and avoid removal by adopting the contemporary culture of white people. The Cherokee developed their own government modeled after the U.S. Constitution with an election system, a bicameral council, and a court system. A Cherokee named Sequoya used 86 characters to represent Cherokee syllables to create a writing system for their own complex language. The adoption of white culture did not protect the Cherokee. After gold was discovered on their land in Georgia, their treaty rights were ignored. When they refused to move, the Georgia militia began attacking Cherokee towns. In response, the Cherokee sued the state. They said that they were an independent nation and claimed that the government of Georgia had no legal power over their lands. In 1832 the Supreme Court agreed.
Chickasaw -who lived in upper Mississippi, negotiated a treaty for better supplies on their trip to Indian Territory. Nevertheless, many Chickasaw lives were also lost during removal.
Creek - resisted removal in 1836 but federal troops moved in and captured some 14,500 of them. They led the Creek, many in chains, to Indian Territory.
Choctaw - were the first Indians sent to Indian Territory. The Mississippi legislature abolished the Choctaw government and then forced the Choctaw leaders to sign the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. This treaty gave more than 7.5 million acres of their land to the state. About one-fourth of the Choctaw died of cold, disease, or starvation.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
A new government agency created by Congress to manage Indian removal to western lands.
Indian Territory – land now located in Oklahoma that white settlers did not want. It was poor and not good for farming. The poor land made life very difficult for newly arrived Indians. Many died from malnutrition and disease. Within ten years, about 60,000 Indians had been relocated to this area.
Americans at the time attributed
the cause of the panic principally
to domestic political conflicts.
Some blamed the policies of
President Andrew Jackson who
refused to renew the charter of
Second Bank of the United States,
resulting in the withdrawal of government funds from the bank. Martin Van Buren, who became president in March 1837, was largely blamed for the panic even though his inauguration preceded the panic by five weeks. Van Buren's refusal to use government intervention to address the crisis, according to his opponents, contributed further to the damage and duration of the Panic. Jacksonian Democrats, on the other hand, blamed the national Bank, both in funding rampant speculation and in introducing inflationary paper money. This was caused by banks issuing paper money excessively.
A little more explanation (extended info)
America's First Great Depression 2:39
Second Seminole War - In Florida, Seminole leaders were forced to sign a removal treaty that their followers decided to ignore. A leader named Osceola called upon his followers to resist with force, and the Second Seminole War began. Osceola was captured and soon died in prison. His followers, however, continued to fight. Some 4,000 Seminole were removed and hundreds of others killed. Eventually, U.S. officials decided to give up the fight. Small groups of Seminole had resisted removal, and their descendants live in Florida today.
By the 1600s, there were four Native American tribes living in Tennessee.
1) Cherokee -- They lived in East Tennessee.
2) Creek -- They lived in the southern part of Middle Tennessee.
3) Chickasaw -- They lived in West Tennessee.
4) Shawnee -- They lived in the northern part of Middle Tennessee.
A brief history...
Major Rivers of TN: Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers
Trail of Tears - 26 min